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Research Papers

Experimental Study of Aqueous Chemical Trisodium Phosphate-Buffered Environment Under Post-LOCA Conditions With Head Loss Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Amir Ali

Research Assistant Professor
Department of Nuclear Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
1 University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001
e-mail: amirali@unm.edu

Daniel LaBrier

Department of Nuclear Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
1 University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001
e-mail: dlabrier@unm.edu

Kerry J. Howe

Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
1 University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001
e-mail: howe@unm.edu

Edward D. Blandford

Assistant Professor
Department of Nuclear Engineering,
University of New Mexico,
1 University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001
e-mail: edb@unm.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 13, 2016; final manuscript received August 3, 2016; published online March 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Michio Murase.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 3(2), 021002 (Mar 01, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: NERS-16-1036; doi: 10.1115/1.4034572 History: Received April 13, 2016; Revised August 03, 2016

An integrated chemical effects test (ICET) was designed and executed to investigate the corrosion of materials in a hypothetical post-loss of coolant accident (LOCA) environment for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and the resulting effects on the measured head loss in three vertical columns through multiconstituents debris beds. The head loss columns were isolated approximately after 72 h, as the measured head loss in all three columns approached or surpassed the maximum limit of the differential pressure (DP) cells. Additional bench scale tests were carried out to investigate the cause of high head loss in the three columns. Combination of epoxy agglomeration and adhesion to fiber resulted in subsequent blockage of the flow through the debris bed with no chemical precipitation was concluded as the most reasonable cause of high head loss observed in the test. The test continued thereafter up to 30 days as an integrated chemical effects test using the corrosion tank only. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests conducted under trisodium phosphate (TSP)-buffered post-LOCA environmental conditions. In general, the total and filtered samples showed almost identical concentration of all metals (Al, Ca, Si, and Mg) except zinc which clearly indicate that no precipitation occurred. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test.

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References

Howe, K. , Mitchell, L. , Kim, S.-J. , Blandford, E. , and Kee, E. , 2015, “ Corrosion and Solubility in a TSP-Buffered Chemical Environment Following a Loss of Coolant Accident: Part 1—Aluminum,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 292, pp. 296–305. [CrossRef]
NRC, 1996, “ Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, Bulletin 96-03.
NRC, 2004, “ NRC Generic Letter 2004–2002: Potential Impact of Debris Blockage on Emergency Recirculation During Design Basis Accidents at Pressurized Water Reactors,” Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC.
Chen, D. , Howe, K. , Dallman, J. , and Letellier, B. , 2008, “ Corrosion of Aluminum in the Aqueous Chemical Environment of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident at a Nuclear Power Plant,” Corros. Sci., 50(4), pp. 1046–1057. [CrossRef]
Dallman, J. , Letellier, B. , Garcia, J. , Madrid, J. , Roesch, W. , Chen, D. , and Sciacca, F. , 2006, “ Integrated Chemical Effects Test Project: Consolidated Data Report,” USNRC, Report No. NUREG/CR-6914.
Leavitt, J. J. , 2013, “ CHLE-012: T1 MBLOCA Test Report, Rev. 4,” University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
Lane, A. E. , Andreychek, T. S. , Byers, W. A. , Jacko, R. J. , Lahoda, E. J. , and Reid, R. D. , 2006, “ Evaluation of Post-Accident Chemical Effects in Containment Sump Fluids to Support GSI-191,” Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, PA, Report No. WCAP-16530-NP.
Leavitt, J. J. , 2013, “ CHLE-014: T2 LBLOCA Test Report, Rev. 2,” University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
Kim, S.-J. , Leavitt, J. , Hammond, K. , Mitchell, L. , Kee, E. , Howe, K. , and Blandford, E. , 2015, “ An Experimental Study of the Corrosion and Precipitation of Aluminum in the Presence of Trisodium Phosphate Buffer Following a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) Scenario,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 282, pp. 71–82. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. J. , Leavitt, J. , Hammond, K. , Mitchell, L. , Blandford, E. , Kee, E. , and Howe, K. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Chemical Effects on ECCS Strainer Head Loss and Flow Sweep Test With Two Debris Beds (Blender-Processed Debris Bed Vs. NEI-Processed Debris Bed),” American Nuclear Society, Nov. 10, pp. 1927–1930.
Ali, A. , 2015, “ CHLE-SNC-021, Test Results-Vogtle Risk Informed GSI-191 CHLE Test T6, Rev. 1,” University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
Ali, A. , and LaBrier, D. , 2014, “ CHLE-SNC-020, Test Plan-Vogtle Risk Informed GSI-191 CHLE Test T6, T7 and T8, Rev. 1,” University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
Ali, A. , LaBrier, D. , Blandford, E. D. , and Howe, K. , 2016, “ Corrosion and Solubility in a TSP-Buffered Chemical Environment Following a Loss of Coolant Accident: Part 4—Integrated Chemical Effects Testing,” Nucl. Eng. Des, 300, pp. 644–654. [CrossRef]
Ali, A. , and LaBrier, D. , 2015, “ CHLE-SNC-023, Test Results-Vogtle Risk Informed GSI-191 CHLE Test T8, Rev. 2,” University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
Ali, A. , Williams, C. , Blandford, E. , and Howe, K. , 2014, “ Filtration of Particulates and Pressure Drop in Fibrous Media in Resolution of GSI-191,” Transactions American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Vol. 111, pp. 967–970.
Ali, A. , and Blandford, E. , 2016, “ An Experimental Study on Head Loss of Prototypical Fibrous Debris Beds During Loss of Coolant Accident Conditions,” ASME J. Nucl. Eng. Radiat. Sci., 2(3), p. 031006. [CrossRef]
Mitchell, L. , 2014, “ ALION-CAL-SNC-8586-10 SNC, Determination of Initial Pool Chemistry for CHLE Testing, Rev. 2,” Alion Science and Technology, Albuquerque, NM.
Mitchell, L. , and Kim, S.-J. , 2013, “ CHLE-SNC-006, Bench Tests Results for Series 2000 Tests for Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Rev. 2,” University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
Pease, D. , LaBrier, D. , Ali, A. , Blandford, E. D. , and Howe, K. , 2016, “ Corrosion and Solubility in a TSP-Buffered Chemical Environment Following a Loss of Coolant Accident: Part 2—Zinc,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 300, pp. 620–631. [CrossRef]
Pease, D. , Howe, K. , Olson, S. , Ali, A. , LaBrier, D. , and Blandford, E. , 2014, “ Risk-Informed Resolution of GSI-191: Zinc Chemical Effects During a PWR LOCA Event,” Transactions American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting, Anaheim, CA, pp. 975–978.
Olson, S. , Howe, K. , Pease, D. , Ali, A. , LaBrier, D. , and Blandford, E. , 2014, “ Fiberglass Calcium Leaching Release Rate Characterization in Post LOCA Conditions,” Transactions American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting, Anaheim, CA, pp. 971–974.
Olson, S. , Ali, A. , LaBrier, D. , Blandford, E. D. , and Howe, K. , 2016, “ Corrosion and Solubility in a TSP-Buffered Chemical Environment Following a Loss of Coolant Accident: Part 3—Calcium,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 300, pp. 632–643. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

CHLE facility: (a) schematic and (b) photographs of corrosion tank (left) and head loss columns (right)

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Fig. 2

Preparation of tank material spray (left) and submerged (right) racks

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Fig. 3

Designed versus measured temperature profile [10,12]

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Fig. 4

Tank flow simulation results: (a) horizontal section A–A and (b) vertical section B–B

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Fig. 5

Photographs for the debris mixture preparation process

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Fig. 6

Debris beds formed in three columns after connection to CHLE tank

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Fig. 10

Column 2 debris bed at 5000×: top (left) and bottom (right) sections

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Fig. 9

Head loss for all three columns, hours −5 through 56

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Fig. 8

Head loss for all three columns, hours −5 through 5

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Fig. 7

Head loss for all three columns beginning debris bed loading to time zero

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Fig. 11

Raw brown (left), raw white (center), and mixture of epoxy exposed to 85 °C boric acid (right)

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Fig. 18

SEM images of spray (top row) and the submerged (bottom row) Al pieces

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Fig. 12

Epoxy/fiber sample from borated TSP-buffered solution: 100× (left), 500× (center), and 1000× (right)

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Fig. 16

Photographs and SEM of GS coupons from ((a) and (c)) spray and submerged racks ((b) and (d))

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Fig. 17

Measured and predicted aluminum concentrations in the current test

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Fig. 13

Measured pH during testing

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Fig. 14

Measured turbidity at tank temperature versus room temperature

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Fig. 15

Zinc concentrations (total and filtered samples)

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Fig. 19

Measured calcium concentrations (total and filtered samples) and Olson et al. [22]

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Fig. 20

Measured silicon concentrations (total and filtered) and CHLE-T6 (total) [13]

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Fig. 21

Measured magnesium concentrations (total and filtered) and CHLE-T6 (total) [13]

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