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Research Papers

Cycle Calculations of a Small-Scale Heat Removal System With Supercritical CO2 as Working Fluid

[+] Author and Article Information
Marcel Straetz

Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy
Systems (IKE),
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 31,
Stuttgart D-70569, Germany
e-mail: marcel.straetz@ike.uni-stuttgart.de

Joerg Starflinger

Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy
Systems (IKE),
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 31,
Stuttgart D-70569, Germany
e-mail: joerg.starflinger@ike.uni-stuttgart.de

Rainer Mertz

Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy
Systems (IKE),
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 31,
Stuttgart D-70569, Germany
e-mail: rainer.mertz@ike.uni-stuttgart.de

Dieter Brillert

Chair of Turbomachinery,
University Duisburg-Essen,
Lotharstraße 1,
Duisburg D-47057, Germany
e-mail: dieter.brillert@uni-due.de

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 22, 2017; final manuscript received March 15, 2018; published online January 24, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Xiaojing Liu.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(1), 011011 (Jan 24, 2019) (6 pages) Paper No: NERS-17-1122; doi: 10.1115/1.4039884 History: Received September 22, 2017; Revised March 15, 2018

In the case of an accident in a nuclear power plant with combined initiating events (loss of ultimate heat sink and station blackout), an additional heat removal system could transfer the decay heat from the core to an ultimate heat sink (UHS). One specific additional heat removal system, based upon a Brayton cycle with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as working fluid, is currently investigated within the European Union-funded project “sCO2-HeRo” (supercritical carbon dioxide heat removal system). It serves as a self-launching, self-propelling, and self-sustaining decay heat removal system used in severe accident scenarios. Since this Brayton cycle produces more electric power than it consumes, the excess electric power can be used inside the power plant, e.g., for recharging batteries. A small-scale demonstrator is attached to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) glass model at Gesellschaft für Simulatorschulung (GfS), Essen, Germany. In order to design and build this small-scale model, cycle calculations are performed to determine the design parameters from which a layout can be derived.

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References

Venker, J. , 2015, “Development and Validation of Models for Simulation of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycles and Application to Self-Propelling Heat Removal Systems in Boiling Water Reactors,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany. https://elib.uni-stuttgart.de/handle/11682/2381
Venker, J. , 2013, “A Passive Heat Removal Retrofit for BWRs,” Nucl. Eng. Int., 58(711), pp. 14–17. http://www.neimagazine.com/features/featurea-passive-heat-removal-retrofit-for-bwrs/
Venker, J. , Starflinger, J. , and Schaffrath, A. , 2016, “Code Development and Simulation of the Supercritical CO2 Heat Removal System,” European Nuclear Conference, Warsaw, Poland, Oct. 9–13.
Venker, J. , von Lavante, D. , Buck, M. , Gitzel, D. , and Starflinger, J. , 2014, “Interaction Between Retrofittable and Existing Emergency Cooling Systems in BWRs,” Tenth International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-10), Okinawa, Japan, Dec. 14–18, Paper No. NUTHOS10-1202.
Venker, J. , von Lavante, D. , Buck, M. , Gitzel, D. , and Starflinger, J. , 2014, “Transient Analysis of an Autarkic Heat Removal System,” International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP), Charlotte, NC, Apr. 6–14, Paper No. ICAPP2014-14044.
Venker, J. , von Lavante, D. , Buck, M. , Gitzel, D. , and Starflinger, J. , 2013, “Concept of a Passive Cooling System to Retrofit Existing Boiling Water Reactors,” International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP), Jeju, South Korea, Apr. 14–18, Paper No. ICAPP2013-FF041.
Benra, K.-F. , Brillert, D. , Frybort, O. , Hajek, P. , Rohde, M. , Schuster, S. , Seewald, M. , and Starflinger, J. , 2016, “A Supercritical CO2 Low Temperature Brayton-Cycle for Residual Heat Removal,” Fifth International sCO2 Power Cycles Symposium. San Antonio, TX, Mar. 28–31.
Hajek, P. , 2016, “Advantages Analysis of Supercritical Power CO2 Cycles,” First European Seminar on Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Power Systems, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 29–30, Paper No. 035.
Straetz, M. , Mertz, R. , and Starflinger, J. , “Power Cycle Calculations and Preliminary Design of a Compact Heat Exchanger of a Scaled down sCO2-HeRo-System for a PWR Glass Model at KSG/GfS,” First European Seminar on Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Power Systems, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 29–30.
Gesellschaft fuer Simulatorschulung, 2017, “Press Release,” Gesellschaft fuer Simulatorschulung, Essen, Germany.
Lemmon, E. W. , Huber, M. L. , and Mclinden, M. O. , 2013, “NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version 9.1,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, REFPROP Version 9.1105.

Figures

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Fig. 1

sCO2-HeRo setup for a BWR

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Fig. 2

Two-scale approach for the sCO2-HeRo assessment

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Fig. 3

Picture of the PWR glass model at GfS

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Fig. 4

sCO2-HeRo setup for the glass model

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Fig. 5

Pressure and temperature in the steam generator of the glass model as a function of the removed decay heat

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Fig. 6

T-s diagram of the sCO2-HeRo setup for the glass model

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Fig. 7

Cycle calculation results of the sCO2-HeRo setup for the glass model

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Fig. 8

Generator excess electricity of the sCO2-HeRo system to be attached to the PWR glass model

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