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Research Papers

Corrosion in Iron and Steel T91 Caused by Flowing Lead–Bismuth Eutectic at 400 °C and 10−7 Mass% Dissolved Oxygen

[+] Author and Article Information
Carsten Schroer

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT),
Institut für Angewandte Materialien—
Angewandte Werkstoffphysik (IAM-AWP),
Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,
Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
e-mail: carsten.schroer@kit.edu

Valentyn Tsisar, Adeline Durand, Olaf Wedemeyer, Aleksandr Skrypnik, Jürgen Konys

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT),
Institut für Angewandte Materialien—
Angewandte Werkstoffphysik (IAM-AWP),
Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,
Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffwissenschaft, Ruhruniversität Bochum, Bochum 44801, Germany.

Manuscript received November 27, 2017; final manuscript received July 16, 2018; published online January 24, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Valentina Angelici Avincola.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(1), 011006 (Jan 24, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: NERS-17-1296; doi: 10.1115/1.4040937 History: Received November 27, 2017; Revised July 16, 2018

Specimens produced from technically pure iron and two different heats of ferritic/martensitic steel T91 are investigated after exposure to oxygen-containing flowing lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 400 °C, 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen, and flow velocity of 2 m/s, for exposure times between around 1000 and 13,000 h. The occurring phenomena are analyzed and quantified using metallographic cross sections prepared after exposure. While pure iron mostly shows solution underneath or in the absence of a detached and buckled oxide scale, solution in T91 occurs only in a few spots on the sample surface. However, in the case of one of the investigated heats, a singular event of exceptionally severe solution-based corrosion is observed. The results are compared especially with findings at 450 and 550 °C and otherwise similar conditions as well as austenitic steels tested in the identical experimental run.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Output of the oxygen sensor used for characterizing the conditions in the test sections of the CORRIDA loop, calculated concentration of oxygen dissolved in the circulating LBE, and exposure times of T91-A and B (hatched bars) as well as technically pure iron (open bars)

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Fig. 2

Oxide scale as locally observed on technically pure iron after exposure to flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen: (a) LOM image and (b) SEM micrograph of cross sections prepared after exposure for 4746 and 13,172 h, respectively

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Fig. 3

Pronounced buckling of the oxide scale in the vicinity of still adherent parts after exposure of technically pure iron for 4746 h to flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen

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Fig. 4

(a) Light-optical microscope and (b) SEM image of solution-based corrosion underneath a detached oxide scale on technically pure iron after exposure for 4746 h to flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen

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Fig. 5

Indication of separation of the oxide scale inside the inner layer for technically pure iron after exposure for 504 h to flowing LBE at 400 °C and nominally 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen

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Fig. 6

Intergranular penetration of LBE into iron plus preferential attack on particular grains as appearing in (a) LOM or (b) SEM images of technically pure iron after exposure for 13,172 h to flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen

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Fig. 7

Top view of intergranular corrosion and preferentially attacked grain for technically pure iron after exposure for 504 h to flowing LBE at 400 °C and nominally 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen, and subsequent stripping of adherent LBE

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Fig. 8

Average depth of corrosion, counted from the original position of the material surface, as observed for solution-based corrosion in technically pure iron after exposure to flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen. The error bars indicate the maximum and minimum that follow from the singular diameter measurements. The dashed line is a linear approximation of the average corrosion depth found for flowing LBE at 450 °C and 10−6 mass% dissolved oxygen [20], whereas the solid line represents the average over all measurements performed after exposure at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% oxygen.

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Fig. 9

Ratio R of the thickness of the penetration zone and overall depth of corrosion as a function of the corrosion depth, for solution-based corrosion in technically pure iron after exposure to flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen. Each data point represents a pair of average R and average depth of corrosion that follows from remeasuring the specimen diameter and the associated thicknesses of the penetration zone at both ends of the measuring line.

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Fig. 10

T91-A after exposure to oxygen-containing flowing LBE for 2015 h at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen: site apparently protected by a thin oxide film, in contrast to the thicker scale formed during the course of accelerated oxidation

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Fig. 11

Oxide scales resulting from accelerated oxidation of T91-B in flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen: (a) secondary electron image of a dense and adherent section of the bilayer scale after exposure for 13,172 h, (b) EDX spectra of the outer (1) and inner (2) layer, respectively, and (c) fragments of the oxide scale that formed during exposure for 1007 h, as observed in the LOM

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Fig. 12

Detached oxide scale on T91-A or B after exposure to flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen: (a) along with buckling of the scale as found on T91-B after 1007 h and (b) on T91-A after 4746 h, with the instantaneous steel surface showing indications of solution-based corrosion

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Fig. 13

(a) Light-optical microscope and (b) SEM image of solution-based corrosion in T91-B after exposure for 4746 h to oxygen-containing flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen

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Fig. 14

Extreme case of local solution-based corrosion observed for T91-B after exposure for 13,172 h to oxygen-containing flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen: (a) Photograph of the affected site and (b) cross section showing approximately the deepest attack on the steel

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Fig. 15

Average metal recession, thickness of spinel and magnetite as a function of exposure time resulting from the local assessment of accelerated oxidation of T91-A and B after exposure to oxygen-containing flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen in the CORRIDA loop. The error bars indicate the maximum and minimum that follow from the singular diameter measurements (metal recession) or the actual maximum and minimum value observed (scale thickness).

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Fig. 16

Local depth of corrosion determined for solution-based corrosion of T91-A and B after exposure to oxygen-containing flowing LBE at 400 °C and 10−7 mass% dissolved oxygen in the CORRIDA loop, with error bars representing the estimated uncertainty of singular values if such estimation was possible

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