Research Papers

Experimental Investigations on Carryover in a Gravity Separation-Based Steam Drum

[+] Author and Article Information
R. K. Bagul

Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Trombay 400085, Mumbai;
Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar
400094, Mumbai

D. S. Pilkhwal

Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Trombay 400085, Mumbai

P. K. Vijayan

Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Trombay 400085, Mumbai;
Homi Bhabha National Institute,
Anushaktinagar 400094, Mumbai

J. B. Joshi

Homi Bhabha National Institute,
Anushaktinagar 400094, Mumbai;
Institute of Chemical Technology,
Matunga 400019, Mumbai

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 6, 2018; final manuscript received October 4, 2018; published online January 24, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Guanghui Su.This work was prepared while under employment by the Government of India as part of the official duties of the author(s) indicated above, as such copyright is owned by that Government, which reserves its own copyright under national law.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(1), 011004 (Jan 24, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: NERS-18-1011; doi: 10.1115/1.4041791 History: Received February 06, 2018; Revised October 04, 2018

Advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) is a natural circulation-based, light water-cooled, heavy water-moderated pressure tube type of nuclear reactor. In AHWR, the steam separation takes place in horizontal steam drums purely based on gravity separation principle. It is a known fact that efficiency of gravity separation is affected by the carryover phenomenon, i.e., conveyance of water droplets by the steam. To minimize the carryover, it is advised to reduce the superficial velocities of phases. Lowering the flow velocities also results in to lower pressure drop, which is very much desired. However, careful attention must be given to carryover phenomenon during design. An experimental test facility known as air–water loop (AWL) simulating the scaled down steam drum of AHWR with air–water mixture has been designed and experimental work performed on carryover phenomenon is presented here. Comparison of measured entrainment fraction with existing correlations and other visual observations are described. Numerical simulations with Euler–Lagrangian method have been carried out for which droplet size distribution measured experimentally is used as an input.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of main heat transfer system of AHWR

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Fig. 2

Entrainment as function of ratio of superficial velocity of steam and vapor space height

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Fig. 3

Various entrainment regions with increasing ratio of superficial gas velocity to height of vapor space

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Fig. 4

Variation of entrainment above the separation interface

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Fig. 5

Three-dimensional schematic of AWL

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Fig. 6

Simplified schematic of AWL

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Fig. 7

Entrainment at high swell levels

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Fig. 8

Comparison of carryover measurements with correlations

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Fig. 9

Droplet size distributions measured at (a) swell level 1.05 m, i.e., h = 0.92, jg= 0.0225 m/s, (b) swell level 0.930, i.e.,h = 1.0, jg= 0.0673 m/s, (c) swell level 1.86 m, i.e., h = 0.07 m, jg= 0.0750 m/s, and (d) swell level 1.48 m, i.e., h = 0.45, jg = 0.0530 m/s

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Fig. 10

Particle positions for test case

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Fig. 11

Particle velocity for the test case

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Fig. 12

Critical droplet diameter for air–water mixture at atmospheric pressure and temperature

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Fig. 13

Estimating amount of entrainment at drum exit as a fraction of near surface entrainment

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Fig. 14

Prediction of carryover for AWL drum by correlations and 1D particle tracking code



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