Research Papers

Assessment of Weld Residual Stress Measurement Precision: Mock-Up Design and Results for the Contour Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Mitchell D. Olson

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California,
One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616

Michael R. Hill

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California,
One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: mrhill@ucdavis.edu

Eric Willis

Electric Power Research Institute,
3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304

Artie G. Peterson

Electric Power Research Institute,
1300 Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28227

Vipul I. Patel, Ondrej Muránsky

ANSTO, Institute of Materials Engineering,
New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 15, 2014; final manuscript received December 16, 2014; published online May 14, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Dmitry Paramonov.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 1(3), 031008 (May 14, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: NERS-14-1051; doi: 10.1115/1.4029413 History: Received October 15, 2014; Accepted December 17, 2014; Online May 14, 2015

Recent experimental work has shown residual stress measurements in welded material to be difficult. To better assess the precision of residual stress measurement techniques, a measurement article was designed to allow repeated measurements of a nominally identical stress field. The measurement article is a long 316L stainless steel plate containing a machine-controlled eight-pass slot weld. Measurements of weld direction residual stress made with the contour method found high tensile stress in the weld and heat-affected zone, with a maximum near 450 MPa and compressive stress away from the weld, a typical residual stress profile for constrained welds. The repeatability standard deviation of repeated contour method residual stress measurements was found to be less than 20 MPa at most spatial locations away from the boundaries of the plate. The repeatability data in the weld are consistent with those from a previous repeatability experiment using the contour method in quenched aluminum bars. A finite-element simulation and neutron diffraction measurements were performed for the same weld and provided results consistent with the contour method measurements. Much of the material used in the work remains available for use in assessing other residual stress measurement techniques, or for an interlaboratory reproducibility study of the contour method.

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Fig. 1

Phase 1 plate with restraint fixture (Reproduced from EPRI, MRP-316)

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Fig. 2

Dimensioned diagrams of plate cross section with details of the machined weld groove used in (a) this work and (b) NRC/EPRI Phase 1 (dimensions in mm)

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Fig. 3

Plate on I-beam after completion of tack welds

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Fig. 5

“Staggered” weld to determine weld bead geometry evolution with each weld pass

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Fig. 6

Sensor locations for measurements during welding: (a) strain gauges (1 and 3 are axial, 2 and 4 transverse) and (b) thermocouples (dimensions in mm)

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Fig. 7

Strain gauges and thermocouples used during welding

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Fig. 8

Measurement plane locations, with contour planes in red and the neutron diffraction plane in green (dimensions in mm)

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Fig. 9

Evolution of weld bead geometry in the staggered weld

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Fig. 10

Axial strain and temperature for the first weld pass versus welding electrode position

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Fig. 11

Surface profiles from contour measurement at plane 1: (a) surface 1, (b) surface 2, (c) average surface, and (d) fit surface

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Fig. 12

Line plots of the plane 1 surface profiles (20 μm added to surface 1 and 20 μm subtracted from surface 2), average surface, and fit surface from the contour measurement along (a) horizontal direction at y=17  mm and (b) along the vertical at the weld center (x=0)

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Fig. 13

Average surface profile from contour measurement at plane 2A

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Fig. 14

Contour measurement results at plane (a) 1, (b) 2B, (c) 3A, and (d) 3B

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Fig. 15

Plot of the longitudinal stresses at the weld center (x=0) versus position along the weld length, at vertical positions of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm

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Fig. 16

(a) Mean stress and (b) repeatability standard deviation of the four contour measurements

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Fig. 17

Line plots of the mean (thick line), repeatability standard deviation (error bars), and individual measurements (dashed lines), along the (a) horizontal at y=17  mm and (b) vertical at the weld center (x=0)

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Fig. 18

Correction at plane 3B from the contour measurement at plane 1

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Fig. 19

Line plots comparing the mean measured residual stress (mechanical), with repeatability standard deviation shown as error bars, weld simulation output (FE), and neutron diffraction measurements (ND) along the (a) horizontal at y=17  mm and (b) vertical at the weld center (x=0)

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Fig. 20

Uncertainty for the longitudinal stress (68% confidence interval)




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