Research Papers

A Physically Based, One-Dimensional Two-Fluid Model for Direct Contact Condensation of Steam Jets Submerged in Subcooled Water

[+] Author and Article Information
David Heinze

Mechanical Engineering,
Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen GmbH,
Dr.-August-Weckesser-Str. 1, 89355 Gundremmingen, Germany
e-mail: david.heinze@partner.kit.edu

Thomas Schulenberg

Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,
Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
e-mail: schulenberg@kit.edu

Lars Behnke

Mechanical Engineering,
Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen GmbH,
Dr.-August-Weckesser-Str. 1, 89355 Gundremmingen, Germany
e-mail: lars.behnke@kkw.rwe.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 12, 2014; final manuscript received December 17, 2014; published online March 24, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Milorad Dzodzo.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 1(2), 021002 (Mar 24, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: NERS-14-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4029417 History: Received June 12, 2014; Accepted December 17, 2014; Online March 24, 2015

A simulation model for the direct contact condensation of steam in subcooled water is presented that allows determination of major parameters of the process, such as the jet penetration length. Entrainment of water by the steam jet is modeled based on the Kelvin–Helmholtz and Rayleigh–Taylor instability theories. Primary atomization due to acceleration of interfacial waves and secondary atomization due to aerodynamic forces account for the initial size of entrained droplets. The resulting steam-water two-phase flow is simulated based on a one-dimensional two-fluid model. An interfacial area transport equation is used to track changes of the interfacial area density due to droplet entrainment and steam condensation. Interfacial heat and mass transfer rates during condensation are calculated using the two-resistance model. The resulting two-phase flow equations constitute a system of ordinary differential equations, which is solved by means of the explicit Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg algorithm. The simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with published experimental data over a wide range of pool temperatures and mass flow rates.

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Fig. 1

Entrainment and atomization at a gas–liquid interface according to Varga et al. [26]. (1) Primary instability due to velocity shear, (2) secondary instability due to acceleration of wave crests, and (3) primary atomization

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Fig. 2

The DCC flow model divides the two-phase jet into a dispersed droplet flow regime and a dispersed bubbly flow regime which are surrounded by the stagnant water

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Fig. 3

Dimensionless penetration length L for different pool temperatures T∞ and steam stagnation pressures p0: Comparison between experimental and calculated values. (a) Experimental data from Kim et al. [10] and (b) Experimental data from Wu et al. [11]

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Fig. 4

Comparison of empirical correlations and of the present simulations results for the dimensionless penetration length Lcalc to experimental values Lexp. Experimental data from [7,10,11,39]

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Fig. 5

Axial temperature profile: Experimental values [7] for different pool temperatures T∞ (dashed filled circles 20°C; dashed filled triangles 30°C; dashed filled squares 40°C; dashed filled diamonds 50°C) and respective simulation results for the mean temperature Tm in the two-phase region (thick solid lines) and the liquid temperature Tl (solid lines). The gas temperature Tg in the two-phase region is equal to the constant saturation temperature and is not shown

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Fig. 6

Jet half radius r0.5 along the jet axis z for the condensation-induced liquid jet: Experimental values [9] for different pool temperatures T∞ (filled circles 20°C; filled triangles 50°C) and respective simulation results (solid lines)




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