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Research Papers

Simulation of Supercritical CO2 Flow Through Circular and Annular Orifice

[+] Author and Article Information
Haomin Yuan

Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: hyuan8@wisc.edu

John Edlebeck

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: jpedlebeck@gmail.com

Mathew Wolf

Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: mpwolf44@gmail.com

Mark Anderson

Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: manderson@engr.wisc.edu

Michael Corradini

Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: corradin@cae.wisc.edu

Sanford Klein

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: klein@engr.wisc.edu

Gregory Nellis

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: gfnellis@engr.wisc.edu

Manuscript received May 9, 2014; final manuscript received November 6, 2014; published online March 24, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Igor Pioro.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 1(2), 021003 (Mar 24, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: NERS-14-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4029337 History: Received May 09, 2014; Accepted December 17, 2014; Online March 24, 2015

Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) is a promising working fluid for future high-efficiency power conversion cycles. In order to develop these cycles, it is necessary to understand supercritical and two-phase CO2 flow. This paper presents a methodology for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of sCO2 flowing through a restriction under a wide range of flow conditions. Under an accidental situation, such as a pipe break, the inventory of sCO2 leaks out through a small restriction. In this research, we use circular and annular orifices to mimic the behavior of restrictions. As the atmospheric pressure is much smaller than the operating pressure in the pipe, a two-phase choked flow will happen. Such behavior is considered in the simulation. The homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) is employed to model the two-phase state. To correctly simulate the behavior of the power cycle under this accidental scenario, the inventory leakage rate should be calculated precisely. Therefore, at the current state, this study only focuses on the prediction of mass flow rate through orifices.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Property change of CO2 near the pseudocritical point at pressure of 8 MPa

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Fig. 2

Schematic of sCO2 simple Brayton cycle

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Fig. 3

T−s diagram of sCO2 simple Brayton cycle

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Fig. 4

Comparisons of FIT and REFPROP for Cp

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Fig. 5

Computational domain for circular orifice

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Fig. 6

Computational domain for annular orifice

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Fig. 7

Choked mass flow rate for different meshing numbers for annular orifice

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Fig. 8

Short annular orifice data for comparison of standard k-epsilon and k-omega SST

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Fig. 9

Circular orifice data for different Prt using standard k-epsilon model

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Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of sCO2 test facility at UW-Madison

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Fig. 11

T−s diagram of sCO2 test facility at UW-Madison

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Fig. 12

Circular orifice test inlet conditions on T–s diagram

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Fig. 13

Circular orifice data for inlet condition of 7.7 MPa, 498  kg/m3

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Fig. 14

Quality distribution of circular orifice for inlet condition of 7.7 MPa, 498  kg/m3, outlet condition of 5.2 MPa

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Fig. 15

Mass flow rate comparisons for circular orifice

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Fig. 16

Short annular orifice data for inlet condition of 10 MPa, 475  kg/m3

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Fig. 17

Long annular orifice data for inlet condition of 10 MPa, 475  kg/m3

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Fig. 18

Mass flow rate comparisons for annular orifice

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Fig. 19

Weisman flow regime map for vertical flow [42,43]

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Fig. 20

Density ratio of other models compare to HEM

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Fig. 21

Working region for HEM

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