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Research Papers

Power Cycles of Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power Plants

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexey Dragunov

Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: alexey.dragunov@uoit.ca

Eugene Saltanov

Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: eugene.saltanov@hotmail.com

Igor Pioro

Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: igor.pioro@uoit.ca

Pavel Kirillov

Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia
e-mail: kirillov@ippe.ru

Romney Duffey

DSM Associates Inc.,
PO 125, 3270 E.17th Street, Ammon, ID 83406
e-mail: duffeyrb@gmail.com

Manuscript received July 30, 2014; final manuscript received October 19, 2014; published online March 24, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Asif Arastu.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 1(2), 021006 (Mar 24, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: NERS-14-1028; doi: 10.1115/1.4029340 History: Received July 30, 2014; Accepted December 17, 2014; Online March 24, 2015

It is well known that electrical power generation is the key factor for advances in industry, agriculture, and standard of living. In general, electrical energy can be generated by (1) nonrenewable energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear; and (2) renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and marine. However, the main sources for electrical energy generation are (1) thermal—primarily coal and secondary natural gas, (2) “large” hydro, and (3) nuclear. Other energy sources might have a level of impact in some countries. Modern advanced thermal power plants have reached very high thermal efficiencies (55–62%). In spite of that, they are still the largest emitters of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Therefore, reliable non–fossil fuel energy generation, such as nuclear power, is becoming more and more attractive. However, current nuclear power plants (NPPs) are way behind in thermal efficiency (30–42%) compared to the efficiency of advanced thermal power plants. Therefore, it is important to consider various ways to enhance the thermal efficiency of NPPs. This paper presents a comparison of thermodynamic cycles and layouts of modern NPPs and discusses ways to improve their thermal efficiencies.

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References

Pioro, I., and Kirillov, P., 2013, “Current Status of Electricity Generation in the World,” Materials and Processes for Energy: Communicating Current Research and Technological Developments (Energy Book Series, Vol. 1), A. Méndez-Vilas, ed., Formatex Research Center, Spain, pp. 783–795, http://www.formatex.info/energymaterialsbook/book/783-795.pdf.
Pioro, I., 2012, “Nuclear Power as a Basis for Future Electricity Production in the World (Chap. 10),” Current Research in Nuclear Reactor Technology in Brazil and Worldwide, A. Z. Mesquita and H. C. Rezende, eds., INTECH, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 211–250, http://www.intechopen.com/books/current-research-in-nuclear-reactor-technology-in-brazil-and-worldwide/nuclear-power-as-a-basis-for-future-electricity-production-in-the-world-generation-iii-and-iv-reacto.
Pioro, I., and Kirillov, P., 2013, “Current Status of Electricity Generation at Thermal Power Plants,” Materials and Processes for Energy: Communicating Current Research and Technological Developments (Energy Book Series, Vol. 1), A. Méndez-Vilas, ed., Formatex Research Center, Spain, pp. 796–805, http://www.formatex.info/energymaterialsbook/book/796-805.pdf.
Pioro, I., and Kirillov, P., 2013, “Current Status of Electricity Generation at Nuclear Power Plants,” Materials and Processes for Energy: Communicating Current Research and Technological Developments (Energy Book Series, Vol. 1), Méndez-Vilas A., ed., Formatex Research Center, Spain, pp. 806–817, http://www.formatex.info/energymaterialsbook/book/806-817.pdf.
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Dragunov, A., Saltanov, Eu., Higgins, A. and Pioro, A., 2013, “Investigation of Different Thermodynamic Cycles for Nuclear Power Plants,” Proceedings of the 34th Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference and 37th CNS/CNA Student Conference, Toronto, ON, Canada, June 9–12, Paper No. 51, 5 p.
Dragunov, A., Saltanov, Eu., Bedenko, S. and Pioro, I., 2012, “A Feasibility Study on Various Power-Conversion Cycles for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor,” Proceedings of the ICONE20-POWER2012 Conference, Anaheim, CA, July 30–Aug. 3, ASME Paper No. 55130, 10 p.
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Pioro, I. L., and Duffey, R. B., 2007, Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Resistance at Supercritical Pressures in Power Engineering Applications, ASME Press, New York, NY, 334 p.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Simplified T–s diagram of VVER-1000 (PWR) NPP

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Fig. 2

Thermodynamic layout of 1000-MWel VVER-1000 PWR NPP (based on schematics in Grigoryev and Zorin [6])

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Fig. 3

Simplified T–s diagram of Pickering 600-MWel NPP

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Fig. 4

Layout of 600-MWel CANDU-reactor NPP (Dragunov et al. [12]; based on schematics from AECL [5])

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Fig. 5

Simplified T–s diagram for the 600-MWel BN-600 SFR NPP

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Fig. 6

Simplified layout of BN-600 reactor NPP operating on a single-reheat subcritical-pressure Rankine steam cycle (Dragunov et al. [13])

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Fig. 7

Simplified T–s diagram for AGR Torness NPP

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Fig. 8

Thermodynamic layout of AGR Torness NPP (Based on schematics from Nonbel [8])

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Fig. 10

Thermodynamic layout of RBMK-1000 NPP (based on schematics in Abramov et al. [14])

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Fig. 9

Simplified T–s diagram for RBMK-1000 NPP

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Fig. 12

Layout of ABWR NPP (based on schematics by Toshiba Corporation [9])

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Fig. 11

Simplified T–s diagram for ABWR NPP

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Fig. 13

Saturation temperature of water at various pressures

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Fig. 14

Critical heat flux (CHF) versus pressure diagram

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Fig. 15

T–s diagrams for CANDU reactor and VVER-1000 NPPs

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Fig. 16

T–s diagrams for RBMK-1000 and Toshiba’s ABWR NPPs

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Fig. 17

T–s diagrams for BN-600 and AGR NPPs’ turbine cycles

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