It is well known that electrical power generation is the key factor for advances in industry, agriculture, and standard of living. In general, electrical energy can be generated by (1) nonrenewable energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear; and (2) renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and marine. However, the main sources for electrical energy generation are (1) thermal—primarily coal and secondary natural gas, (2) “large” hydro, and (3) nuclear. Other energy sources might have a level of impact in some countries. Modern advanced thermal power plants have reached very high thermal efficiencies (55–62%). In spite of that, they are still the largest emitters of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Therefore, reliable non–fossil fuel energy generation, such as nuclear power, is becoming more and more attractive. However, current nuclear power plants (NPPs) are way behind in thermal efficiency (30–42%) compared to the efficiency of advanced thermal power plants. Therefore, it is important to consider various ways to enhance the thermal efficiency of NPPs. This paper presents a comparison of thermodynamic cycles and layouts of modern NPPs and discusses ways to improve their thermal efficiencies.