0
Research Papers

Measured Biaxial Residual Stress Maps in a Stainless Steel Weld

[+] Author and Article Information
Mitchell D. Olson

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California,
One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616

Michael R. Hill

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California,
One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: mrhill@ucdavis.edu

Vipul I. Patel

Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO,
Kirrawee-Sydney, NSW 2232, Australia

Ondrej Muránsky

Institute of Materials Engineering,
ANSTO,
Kirrawee-Sydney, NSW 2232, Australia

Thomas Sisneros

Los Alamos Neutron Science Center,
Los Alamos National Laboratory,
Los Alamos, NM 87545

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 21, 2014; final manuscript received February 17, 2015; published online September 3, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Akos Horvath.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 1(4), 041002 (Sep 16, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: NERS-14-1060; doi: 10.1115/1.4029927 History: Received November 21, 2014; Accepted February 26, 2015; Online September 03, 2015

This paper describes a sequence of residual stress measurements made to determine a two-dimensional map of biaxial residual stress in a stainless steel weld. A long stainless steel (316L) plate with an eight-pass groove weld (308L filler) was used. The biaxial stress measurements follow a recently developed approach, comprising a combination of contour method and slitting measurements, with a computation to determine the effects of out-of-plane stress on a thin slice. The measured longitudinal stress is highly tensile in the weld- and heat-affected zone, with a maximum around 450 MPa, and compressive stress toward the transverse edges around −250 MPa. The total transverse stress has a banded profile in the weld with highly tensile stress at the bottom of the plate (y = 0) of 400 MPa, rapidly changing to compressive stress (at y = 5 mm) of −200 MPa, then tensile stress at the weld root (y = 17 mm) and in the weld around 200 MPa, followed by compressive stress at the top of the weld at around −150 MPa. The results of the biaxial map compare well with the results of neutron diffraction measurements and output from a computational weld simulation.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Stress
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

EPRI, 2004, “Material Reliability Program Crack Growth Rates for Evaluating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 82, 182, and 132 Welds,” Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, MRP-115NP.
Brust, F. W., and Scott, P. M., 2007, “Weld Residual Stresses and Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in Bimetal Nuclear Pipe Welds,” ASME 2007 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY, PVP2007-26297.
Song, T.-K., Bae, H.-R., Kim, Y.-J., and Lee, K.-S., 2010, “Numerical Investigation on Welding Residual Stresses in a PWR Pressurizer Safety/Relief Nozzle,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 33(11), pp. 689–702. 10.1111/ffe.2010.33.issue-11
James, M. N., Hughes, D. J., Chen, Z., Lombard, H., Hattingh, D. G., Asquith, D., Yates, J. R., and Webster, P. J., 2007, “Residual Stresses and Fatigue Performance,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 14(2), pp. 384–395. 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2006.02.011
Kerr, M., Prime, M. B., Swenson, H., Buechler, M. A., Steinzig, M, Clausen, B., and Sisneros, T., 2013, “Residual Stress Characterization in a Dissimilar Metal Weld Nuclear Reactor Piping System Mock Up,” J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 135(4), p. 041205. 10.1115/1.4024446
ASME, 2013, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
British Energy Generation Ltd., 2004, “Procedure R6 Revision 4: Assessment of the Integrity of Structures Containing Defects,” British Energy Generation Ltd., Gloucester, UK.
Edwards, L., Smith, M. C., Turski, M., Fitzpatrick, M. E., and Bouchard, P. J., 2008, “Advances in Residual Stress Modeling and Measurement for the Structural Integrity Assessment of Welded Thermal Power Plant,” Adv. Mater. Res., 41(1), pp. 391–400. 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.41-42.391
EPRI, 2011, “Materials Reliability Program: Finite-Element Model Validation for Dissimilar Metal Butt-Welds,” Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, .
Rathbun, H. J., Fredette, L. F., Scott, P. M., Csontos, A. A., and Rudland, D. L., 2011, “NRC Welding Residual Stress Validation Program International Round Robin Program and Findings,” 2011 ASME Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference, Baltimore, MD, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY, PVP2011-57642.
Truman, C., and Smith, M., 2009, “The NeT Residual Stress Measurement and Modelling Round Robin on a Single Weld Bead-on-Plate Specimen,” Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 86(1), pp. 1–2. 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2008.11.018
Ohms, C., Wimpory, R. C., Katsareas, D. E., and Youtsos, A. G., 2009, “NET TG1: Residual Stress Assessment by Neutron Diffraction and Finite Element Modeling on a Single Bead Weld on a Steel Plate,” Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 86(1), pp. 63–72. 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2008.11.009
Smith, M. C., and Smith, A. C., 2009, “NeT Bead-on-Plate Round Robin: Comparison of Residual Stress Predictions and Measurements,” Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 86(1), pp. 79–95. 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2008.11.017
Bouchard, P. J., 2009, “The NeT Bead-on-Plate Benchmark for Weld Residual Stress Simulation,” Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 86(1), pp. 31–42. 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2008.11.019
Hutchings, M. T., Withers, P. J., Holden, T. M., and Lorentzen, T., 2005, Introduction to the Characterization of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Woo, W., Choo, H., Prime, M., Feng, Z., and Clausen, B., 2008, “Microstructure, Texture and Residual Stress in a Friction-Stir-Processed AZ31B Magnesium Alloy,” Acta Mater., 56(8), pp. 1701–1711. 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.12.020
Smith, D. J., 2013, Practical Residual Stress Measurement Methods, Chap. 3, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK.
Masubuchi, K., 1980, Analysis of Welded Structures: Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Their Consequences, Chap. 4, Pergamon Press, New York.
Gunnert, R., 1961, Proceedings of the Special Symposium on the Behavior of Welded Structures, Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL.
Rosenthal, D., and Norton, J., 1945, “A Method of Measuring Triaxial Residual Stress in Plates,” Weld. J., 24(5), pp. 295–307.
Hill, M. R., and Nelson, D. V., 1996, “Determining Residual Stress Through the Thickness of a Welded Plate,” ASME Publications PVP, 327(1), pp. 29–36.
Olson, M. D., Hill, M. R., Willis, E., Peterson, A. G., Patel, V. I., and Muránsky, O., 2014, “Assessment of Weld Residual Stress Measurement Precision: Mock-Up Design and Results for the Contour Method,” J. Nucl. Eng. Radiat. Sci, in press. 10.1115/1.4029413
Olson, M. D., Wong, W., and Hill, M. R., 2012, “Simulation of Triaxial Residual Stress Mapping for a Hollow Cylinder,” ASME 2012 Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY, PVP2012-78885.
Olson, M. D., and Hill, M. R., 2014, “Biaxial Residual Stress Mapping Validation,” Exp. Mech., in review.
Prime, M. B., 2001, “Cross-Sectional Mapping of Residual Stresses by Measuring the Surface Contour after a Cut,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 123(2), pp. 162–168. 10.1115/1.1345526
2010, Abaqus/Standard, Version 6.10, Providence, RI.
Hill, M. R., 2013, Practical Residual Stress Measurement Methods, Chap. 4, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK.
Schajer, G. S., and Prime, M. B., 2006, “Use of Inverse Solutions for Residual Stress Measurement,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 128(2), pp. 375–382. [CrossRef]
Aydıner, C. C., and Prime, M. B., 2013, “Three-Dimensional Constraint Effects on the Slitting Method for Measuring Residual Stress,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 135(3), p. 031006. 10.1115/1.4023849
Olson, M. D., and Hill, M. R., 2014, “Residual Stress Mapping With Slitting,” Exp. Mech., in preparation.
Wong, W., and Hill, M. R., 2013, “Superposition and Destructive Residual Stress Measurements,” Exp. Mech., 53(3), pp. 339–344. 10.1007/s11340-012-9636-y
Olson, M. D., DeWald, A. T., Hill, M. R., and Prime, M. B., 2014, “Contour Method Uncertainty Estimation,” Exp. Mech., in press.
Prime, M. B., and Hill, M. R., 2006, “Uncertainty, Model Error, and Order Selection for Series-Expanded, Residual-Stress Inverse Solutions,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 128(2), pp. 175–185. 10.1115/1.2172278
ISO, “Non-Destructive Testing—Standard Test Method for Determining Residual Stresses by Neutron Diffraction,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, ISO/TS 21432.
Bourke, M. A. M., Dunand, D. C., and Ustundag, E., 2002, “SMARTS—A Spectrometer for Strain Measurement in Engineering Materials,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process., 74(1), pp. 1707–1709. 10.1007/s003390201747
Larson, A. C., and Von Dreele, R. B., 2004, “General Structural Analysis System (GSAS),” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LAUR 86-748.
Muránsky, O., Smith, M., Bendeich, P., Holden, T., Luzin, V., Martins, R., and Edwards, L., 2012, “Comprehensive Numerical Analysis of a Three-Pass Bead-in-Slot Weld and its Critical Validation Using Neutron and Synchrotron Diffraction Residual Stress Measurements,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 49(9), pp. 1045–1062. 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2011.07.006
2010, FeatPlus, FEAT-Weld Modeling Tools, Version 2.0, Bristol, UK.
Patel, V. I., Muránsky, O., Hamelin, C. J., Olson, M. D., Hill, M. R., and Edwards, L., 2013, “A Validated Numerical Model for Residual Stress Predictions in an Eight-Pass-Welded Stainless Steel Plate,” Mater. Sci. Forum, 777(1), pp. 46–51. 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.777.46
Patel, V. I., Muránsky, O., Hamelin, C. J., Olson, M. D., Hill, M. R., and Edwards, L., 2014, “Finite Element Modelling of Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Plate With 8-Passes,” ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference, Anaheim, CA, PVP2014-28209.
Lee, M. J., and Hill, M. R., 2007, “Intralaboratory Repeatability of Residual Stress Determined by the Slitting Method,” Exp. Mech., 47(6), pp. 745–752. 10.1007/s11340-007-9085-1
Zhang, J., and Dong, P., 2000, “Residual Stresses in Welded Moment Frames and Implications for Structural Performance,” J. Struct. Eng., 126(3), pp. 306–315. 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2000)126:3(306)
Coleman, H. W., and Steele, W. G., 2009, Experimentation, Validation, and Uncertainty Analysis for Engineers, Chap. 2, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Hill, M. R., Olson, M. D., and DeWald, A. T., 2014, “Biaxial Residual Stress Mapping for a Dissimilar Metal Welded Nozzle,” ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference, Anaheim, CA, PVP2014-28328.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Dimensioned diagram of the plate (a) overall geometry and (b) cross section with details of the machined groove. All dimensions are in mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental step diagram. The initial configuration (A) is cut in half to the B configuration and the stress release σi is found with the contour method. A slice (configuration C) is then removed from the B configuration. The stress release σii is not directly found but could be found as σii=σA−σC−σi=σA(z)−σi. Plane of interest (z=0) is shown as a hatched plane.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Stress decomposition diagram. The original stress (σA) is equal to the stress remaining in the thin slice (σC) plus the effect of total longitudinal stress on the thin slice (σA(z)). Plane of interest (z=0) is shown as a hatched plane.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The sectioning steps used in the biaxial mapping experiment. Plane of interest (z=0) is shown as a hatched plane.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Slitting plane locations to determine remaining transverse stresses in the slice. Repeat measurements were made for the slices 1, 3 and for slices 2, 4. Strain gauges (to scale) are shown as thick lines on bottom of each slice. The slitting direction is from the top of the figure to the bottom and the maximum cut depth is indicated with an x.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Neutron diffraction stress-free (d0) sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Line plots of the surface displacements (20 μm added to surface 1 and 20 μm subtracted from surface 2), average surface, and fit surface from the contour measurement (a) horizontal direction at y=17  mm and (b) along the vertical at the weld center (x=0).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Measured longitudinal stress using the contour method and (b) longitudinal stress from a computational weld model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Slitting data at x=0 on slice 3 (a) measured strain and (b) the computed stress

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Average of the slitting data, where the line is the average and the error bars are half the range (so that the top of the error bar touches one measurement and the bottom of the error bar touches the other measurement) for (a) slices 1, 3 and (b) slices 2, 4.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Line plots of the longitudinal stress found with biaxial mapping (Mechanical), finite element weld simulation (FE), and neutron diffraction (ND) along the (a) horizontal direction at y=17  mm and (b) along the vertical at the weld center (x=0).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Uncertainty for the transverse stress (68% confidence interval) from (a) slitting measurement of stress remaining in slice (σC), (b) effect of longitudinal stress on transverse stress in the thin slice (σA(z)), and (c) total transverse stress uncertainty.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Uncertainty for the longitudinal stress (68% confidence interval)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Plot of the transverse stresses at the weld center (x=0) remaining in the slice (σC), effect of the longitudinal stress on the slice (σA(z)), and in original configuration (σA).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Transverse stress remaining in slice (σC), (b) effect of longitudinal stress on transverse stress in the thin slice (σA(z)), (c) total transverse stress in original plate (σA), and (d) transverse stress from computational weld model.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Line plots of the transverse stress found with biaxial mapping (Mechanical), finite element weld simulation (FE), and neutron diffraction (ND) along the (a) horizontal direction at y=17  mm and (b) with X-ray diffraction (XRD) along the vertical at the weld center (x=0). Note: XRD data have σA(z) added to them to more easily compare the stresses in the plate (since the measurements were made in a slice).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Typical neutron diffraction pattern for the stressed (d) sample. The plus sign markers (top of chart) are the measured d-spacing, the line at the top of the chart is the Rietveld fit to the diffraction pattern, and the line at the bottom of the chart is the difference between the measured and fit diffraction pattern.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In