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Research Papers

Measured Biaxial Residual Stress Maps in a Stainless Steel Weld

[+] Author and Article Information
Mitchell D. Olson

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California,
One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616

Michael R. Hill

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California,
One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: mrhill@ucdavis.edu

Vipul I. Patel

Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO,
Kirrawee-Sydney, NSW 2232, Australia

Ondrej Muránsky

Institute of Materials Engineering,
ANSTO,
Kirrawee-Sydney, NSW 2232, Australia

Thomas Sisneros

Los Alamos Neutron Science Center,
Los Alamos National Laboratory,
Los Alamos, NM 87545

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 21, 2014; final manuscript received February 17, 2015; published online September 3, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Akos Horvath.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 1(4), 041002 (Sep 16, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: NERS-14-1060; doi: 10.1115/1.4029927 History: Received November 21, 2014; Accepted February 26, 2015; Online September 03, 2015

This paper describes a sequence of residual stress measurements made to determine a two-dimensional map of biaxial residual stress in a stainless steel weld. A long stainless steel (316L) plate with an eight-pass groove weld (308L filler) was used. The biaxial stress measurements follow a recently developed approach, comprising a combination of contour method and slitting measurements, with a computation to determine the effects of out-of-plane stress on a thin slice. The measured longitudinal stress is highly tensile in the weld- and heat-affected zone, with a maximum around 450 MPa, and compressive stress toward the transverse edges around −250 MPa. The total transverse stress has a banded profile in the weld with highly tensile stress at the bottom of the plate (y = 0) of 400 MPa, rapidly changing to compressive stress (at y = 5 mm) of −200 MPa, then tensile stress at the weld root (y = 17 mm) and in the weld around 200 MPa, followed by compressive stress at the top of the weld at around −150 MPa. The results of the biaxial map compare well with the results of neutron diffraction measurements and output from a computational weld simulation.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Stress
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Dimensioned diagram of the plate (a) overall geometry and (b) cross section with details of the machined groove. All dimensions are in mm.

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Fig. 2

Experimental step diagram. The initial configuration (A) is cut in half to the B configuration and the stress release σi is found with the contour method. A slice (configuration C) is then removed from the B configuration. The stress release σii is not directly found but could be found as σii=σA−σC−σi=σA(z)−σi. Plane of interest (z=0) is shown as a hatched plane.

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Fig. 3

Stress decomposition diagram. The original stress (σA) is equal to the stress remaining in the thin slice (σC) plus the effect of total longitudinal stress on the thin slice (σA(z)). Plane of interest (z=0) is shown as a hatched plane.

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Fig. 4

The sectioning steps used in the biaxial mapping experiment. Plane of interest (z=0) is shown as a hatched plane.

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Fig. 5

Slitting plane locations to determine remaining transverse stresses in the slice. Repeat measurements were made for the slices 1, 3 and for slices 2, 4. Strain gauges (to scale) are shown as thick lines on bottom of each slice. The slitting direction is from the top of the figure to the bottom and the maximum cut depth is indicated with an x.

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Fig. 6

Neutron diffraction stress-free (d0) sample

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Fig. 7

Line plots of the surface displacements (20 μm added to surface 1 and 20 μm subtracted from surface 2), average surface, and fit surface from the contour measurement (a) horizontal direction at y=17  mm and (b) along the vertical at the weld center (x=0).

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Fig. 8

(a) Measured longitudinal stress using the contour method and (b) longitudinal stress from a computational weld model

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Fig. 9

Slitting data at x=0 on slice 3 (a) measured strain and (b) the computed stress

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Fig. 10

Average of the slitting data, where the line is the average and the error bars are half the range (so that the top of the error bar touches one measurement and the bottom of the error bar touches the other measurement) for (a) slices 1, 3 and (b) slices 2, 4.

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Fig. 11

(a) Transverse stress remaining in slice (σC), (b) effect of longitudinal stress on transverse stress in the thin slice (σA(z)), (c) total transverse stress in original plate (σA), and (d) transverse stress from computational weld model.

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Fig. 12

Plot of the transverse stresses at the weld center (x=0) remaining in the slice (σC), effect of the longitudinal stress on the slice (σA(z)), and in original configuration (σA).

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Fig. 13

Uncertainty for the longitudinal stress (68% confidence interval)

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Fig. 14

Uncertainty for the transverse stress (68% confidence interval) from (a) slitting measurement of stress remaining in slice (σC), (b) effect of longitudinal stress on transverse stress in the thin slice (σA(z)), and (c) total transverse stress uncertainty.

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Fig. 15

Line plots of the longitudinal stress found with biaxial mapping (Mechanical), finite element weld simulation (FE), and neutron diffraction (ND) along the (a) horizontal direction at y=17  mm and (b) along the vertical at the weld center (x=0).

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Fig. 16

Line plots of the transverse stress found with biaxial mapping (Mechanical), finite element weld simulation (FE), and neutron diffraction (ND) along the (a) horizontal direction at y=17  mm and (b) with X-ray diffraction (XRD) along the vertical at the weld center (x=0). Note: XRD data have σA(z) added to them to more easily compare the stresses in the plate (since the measurements were made in a slice).

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Fig. 17

Typical neutron diffraction pattern for the stressed (d) sample. The plus sign markers (top of chart) are the measured d-spacing, the line at the top of the chart is the Rietveld fit to the diffraction pattern, and the line at the bottom of the chart is the difference between the measured and fit diffraction pattern.

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