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Research Papers

Effect of Thermal Pretreatment on the Corrosion of Stainless Steel in Flowing Supercritical Water

[+] Author and Article Information
Yinan Jiao

Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
McMaster University,
1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
e-mail: jiaoyn@mcmaster.ca

Joseph R. Kish

Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
McMaster University,
1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
e-mail: kishjr@mcmaster.ca

Graham Steeves

Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of New Brunswick,
15 Dineen Drive, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
e-mail: graham.steeves@unb.ca

William G. Cook

Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of New Brunswick,
15 Dineen Drive, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
e-mail: wcook@unb.ca

Wenyue Zheng

CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada,
183 Longwood Road South, Hamilton, ON L8P 0A5, Canada
e-mail: Wenyue.Zheng@NRCan-RNCan.gc.ca

David A. Guzonas

Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River Laboratories,
ON K0J 1J0, Canada
e-mail: David.Guzonas@cnl.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 8, 2015; final manuscript received July 17, 2015; published online December 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Thomas Schulenberg.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 2(1), 011015 (Dec 09, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: NERS-15-1047; doi: 10.1115/1.4031125 History: Received April 08, 2015; Accepted August 05, 2015

The effect of high-temperature microstructure degradation (thermal ageing) on the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels in supercritical water (SCW) was evaluated in this study. Mill-annealed (MA) and thermally treated (TT) samples of Type 316L and Type 310S stainless steel were exposed in 25 MPa SCW at 550°C with 8 ppm dissolved oxygen in a flowing autoclave testing loop. The thermal treatments applied to Type 316L (815°C for 1000 hr + water quench) and Type 310S (800°C for 1000 hr + air cool) were successful in precipitating the expected intermetallic phases in each alloy, both within the grains and on the grain boundaries. It was found that a prolonged time at relatively high temperature was sufficient to suppress significant compositional variation across the various intermetallic phase boundaries. This paper presents the results of the gravimetric analysis and oxide scale characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The role played by the fine precipitate structure on formation of the oxide scale, and thus corrosion resistance, is discussed. The combined role of dissolved oxygen and flow (revealed by examining the differences between Type 316L samples exposed in a static autoclave and in the flowing autoclave loop) is also addressed. It was concluded that formation of intermetallic phase precipitates during high-temperature exposure is not likely to have a major effect on the apparent corrosion resistance because of the discontinuous nature of the precipitation.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Light optical image of the thermally pretreated material: (a) Type 316L-MA, (b) Type 316L-TT, (c) Type 310S-SA, and (d) Type 310S-TT

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Fig. 2

STEM bright-field image and corresponding EDS line analysis of intermetallic precipitates present in the thermally pretreated material: (a) Type 316L-TT, (b) Type 316L-TT (EDS), (c) Type 310S-TT, and (d) Type 310S-TT (EDS)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Powder XRD pattern of intermetallic precipitates of intermetallic precipitates present in the thermally pretreated materials: (a) Type 316L-TT and (b) Type 310S-TT

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Fig. 4

Bar chart comparing weight change data of the exposed sample sets

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Fig. 5

Secondary electron image (plan view) at lower magnification of the oxide scale morphology formed on the thermally pretreated material after exposure in SCW: (a) Type 316L-MA, (b) Type 316L-TT, (c) Type 310S-SA, and (d) Type 310S-TT

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Fig. 6

Secondary electron image (plan view) at higher magnification of the oxide scale morphology formed on the thermally pretreated material after exposure in SCW: (a) Type 316L-MA, (b) Type 316L-TT, (c) Type 310S-SA, and (d) Type 310S-TT

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Fig. 7

Backscattered electron image (cross section) and corresponding EDS line analysis of the scale formed on the thermally pretreated Type 316L material after exposure in SCW: (a) Type 316L-MA (BSE Image), (b) Type 316L-MA (EDS), (c) Type 316L-TT (BSE Image), and (d) Type 316L-TT (EDS)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Backscattered electron image (cross section) and corresponding EDS line analysis of the scale formed on the thermally pretreated Type 310S material after exposure in SCW. (a) Type 310S-MA (BSE Image), (b) Type 310S-MA (EDS), (c) Type 310S-TT (BSE Image), and (d) Type 310S-TT (EDS)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Weight change data for Type 316L exposed in 25 MPa SCW at 550°C for 500 hr

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