0
Research Papers

Oxidation Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steel 316L and 310S in Air and Supercritical Water

[+] Author and Article Information
Majid Nezakat

University of Saskatchewan,
57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
e-mail: majid.nezakat@usask.ca

Hamed Akhiani

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Canada, Ltd.,
826, 58th Street East, Saskatoon, SK S7K 5Z4, Canada
e-mail: Hamed.akhiani@psca.mhps.com

Sami Penttilä

VTT Technical Research Center of Finland,
Kemistintie 3, Espoo FI-02044 VTT, Finland
e-mail: sami.penttila@vtt.fi

Jerzy Szpunar

University of Saskatchewan,
57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
e-mail: Jerzy.szpunar@usask.ca

Manuscript received June 10, 2015; final manuscript received September 29, 2015; published online February 29, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Thomas Schulenberg.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 2(2), 021008 (Feb 29, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: NERS-15-1114; doi: 10.1115/1.4031817 History: Received June 10, 2015

In this study, we evaluated the oxidation resistance of austenitic stainless steels 316L and 310S in two different environments: air at 600°C and atmospheric pressure and supercritical water at 600°C and pressure of 25 MPa. Results indicated that both alloys showed good oxidation resistance in air by producing a protective oxide layer on their surface. In addition, alloy 310S exhibited lower weight gain during air oxidation compared to alloy 316L due to its higher content of chromium and nickel. Oxidation of alloy 310S in supercritical water was much lower than that of alloy 316L because of the formation of a protective layer of Mn2CrO4 spinel on the surface. No protective scale was formed on the surface of the alloy 316L, as magnetite (Fe3O4) and iron-chromium spinel (FeCr2O4) were the product of oxidation in supercritical water.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sun, C., Hui, R., Qu, W., and Yick, S., 2009, “Progress in Corrosion Resistant Materials for Supercritical Water Reactors,” Corros. Sci., 51(11), pp. 2508–2523. 0010-938X 10.1016/j.corsci.2009.07.007
Kritzer, P., 2004, “Corrosion in High-Temperature and Supercritical Water and Aqueous Solutions: A Review,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 29(1–2), pp. 1–29. 0896-8446 10.1016/S0896-8446(03)00031-7
Allen, T. R., Balbaud-Celerier, F., Asayama, T., Pouchon, M., Busby, J. T., Maloy, S., Park, J. Y., Fazio, C., Dai, Y., Agostini, P., Chevalier, J. P., and Marrow, J., 2013, “Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems,” Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development, .
Luo, X., Tang, R., Long, C., Miao, Z., Peng, Q., and Li, C., 2007, “Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Ferritic Steels in Supercritical Water,” Nucl. Eng. Technol., 40(2), pp. 147–154. 10.5516/NET.2008.40.2.147
Nezakat, M., Akhiani, H., Penttilä, S., Sabet, M., and Szpunar, J., 2015, “Effect of Thermo-Mechanical Processing on Oxidation of Austenitic Stainless Steel 316L in Supercritical Water,” Corros. Sci., 94, pp. 197–206. 0010-938X 10.1016/j.corsci.2015.02.008
Penttilä, S., Toivonen, A., Li, J., Zheng, W., and Novotny, R., 2013, “Effect of Surface Modification on the Corrosion Resistance of Austenitic Stainless Steel 316L in Supercritical Water Conditions,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 81, pp. 157–163. 0896-8446 10.1016/j.supflu.2013.05.002
Hayward, T. M., Svishchev, I. M., and Makhija, R. C., 2003, “Stainless Steel Flow Reactor for Supercritical Water Oxidation: Corrosion Tests,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 27(3), pp. 275–281. 0896-8446 10.1016/S0896-8446(02)00264-4
Sun, M., Wu, X., Zhang, Z., and Han, E., 2009, “Oxidation of 316 Stainless Steel in Supercritical Water,” Corros. Sci., 51(5), pp. 1069–1072. 0010-938X 10.1016/j.corsci.2009.03.008
Sekine, M., Sakaguchi, N., Endo, M., Kinoshita, H., Watanabe, S., Kokawa, H., Yamashita, S., Yano, Y., and Kawai, M., 2011, “Grain Boundary Engineering of Austenitic Steel PNC316 for Use in Nuclear Reactors,” J. Nucl. Mater., 414(2), pp. 232–236. 0022-3115 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2011.03.049
Fulger, M., Mihalache, M., Ohai, D., Fulger, S., and Valeca, S. C., 2011, “Analyses of Oxide Films Grown on AISI 304L Stainless Steel and Incoloy 800HT Exposed to Supercritical Water Environment,” J. Nucl. Mater., 415(2), pp. 147–157. 0022-3115 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2011.05.007
Betova, I., Bojinov, M., Kinnunen, P., Penttilä, S., and Saario, T., 2007, “Surface Film Electrochemistry of Austenitic Stainless Steel and Its Main Constituents in Supercritical Water,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 43(2), pp. 333–340. 0896-8446 10.1016/j.supflu.2007.06.005
Gómez-Briceño, D., Blázquez, F., and Sáez-Maderuelo, A., 2013, “Oxidation of Austenitic and Ferritic/Martensitic Alloys in Supercritical Water,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 78, pp. 103–113. 0896-8446 10.1016/j.supflu.2013.03.014
Tan, L., Allen, T. R., and Yang, Y., 2011, “Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 800H (Fe–21Cr–32Ni) in Supercritical Water,” Corros. Sci., 53(2), pp. 703–711. 0010-938X 10.1016/j.corsci.2010.10.021
OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 2014, “Technology Roadmap Update for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems,” pp. 1–66.
Gao, X., Wu, X., Zhang, Z., Guan, H., and Han, E., 2007, “Characterization of Oxide Films Grown on 316L Stainless Steel Exposed to H2O2-Containing Supercritical Water,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 42(1), pp. 157–163. 0896-8446 10.1016/j.supflu.2006.12.020
Asselin, E., Alfantazi, A., and Rogak, S., “Corrosion of Nickel–Chromium Alloys, Stainless Steel and Niobium at Supercritical Water Oxidation Conditions,” Corros. Sci., 52(1), pp. 118–124. 0010-938X 10.1016/j.corsci.2009.08.053
Was, G. S., Ampornrat, P., Gupta, G., Teysseyre, S., West, E. A., Allen, T. R., Sridharan, K., Tan, L., Chen, Y., Ren, X., and Pister, C., 2007, “Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking in Supercritical Water,” J. Nucl. Mater., 371(1–3), pp. 176–201. 0022-3115 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2007.05.017
Kaneda, J., Kasahara, S., Kano, F., Saito, N., Shikama, T., and Matsui, H., 2011, “Material Development for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor,” The 5th International Symposium on SCWR (ISSCWR-5), Canadian Nuclear Society.
Baindur, S., 2008, “Materials Challenges for the Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR),” Bull. Can. Nucl. Soc., 29(1), pp. 32–38.
Birks, N., Meier, G. H., and Pettit, F. S., 2006, High-Temperature Oxidation of Metals, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York.
Young, D., 2008, High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, 1st ed., Elsevier, Oxford.
Guillamet, R., Lopitaux, J., Hannoyer, B., and Lenglet, M., 1993, “Oxidation of Stainless Steels (AISI 304 and 316) at High Temperature. Influence on the Metallic Substratum,” J. Phys. IV, 3(C9), pp. 349–356. 10.1051/jp4:1993935
Peraldi, R., and Pint, B., 2004, “Effect of Cr and Ni Contents on the Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic and Austenitic Model Alloys in Air With Water Vapor,” Oxid. Met., 61(5–6), pp. 463–483. 0030-770X 10.1023/B:OXID.0000032334.75463.da
Akhiani, H., Nezakat, M., Penttilä, S., and Szpunar, J., 2015, “The Oxidation Resistance of Thermo-Mechanically Processed Incoloy 800HT in Supercritical Water,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 101, pp. 150–160. 0896-8446 10.1016/j.supflu.2015.03.019
Mahboubi, S., Button, G. A., and Kish, J., 2014, “Oxide Scales Formed on Austinitic Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys Exposed to Supercritical Water: Role of Alloying Elements,” The 19th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, PBNC, Canadian Nuclear Society.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Weight change of stainless steels 316L and 310S in air and supercritical water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Main orientations and fibers observed in steels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

OIM map of hot-rolled stainless steels 316L and 310S

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

ϕ2=0  deg, 45 deg, and 65 deg sections of the ODF of hot-rolled stainless steels 316L and 310S

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the supercritical autoclave system (Reprinted from Journal of Corrosion Science, Vol 94, Majid Nezakat, Hamed Akhiani, Sami Pennttilä, Seyed Morteza Sabet, Jerzy Szpunar, Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on Oxidation of Austenitic Stainless Steel 316L in Supercritical Water, pp. 197–206, Copyright (2015), with permission from Elsevier.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

X-ray diffraction patterns of stainless steels 316L and 310S after oxidation in air at 600°C and atmospheric pressure as well as supercritical water at 600°C and 25 MPa

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

SEM micrograph, EDS elemental composition maps, and line scan of stainless steel (a) 316L and (b) 310S after 1000 hr of oxidation in air at 600°C and atmospheric pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

EBSD band contrast and EDS elemental composition of stainless steel 316L after exposure to supercritical water at 600°C and 25 MPa for 1000 hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

SEM micrograph, EDS elemental composition maps, and line scan of stainless steel 310S surface after exposure to supercritical water at 600°C and 25 MPa for 1000 hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Stainless steel 316L after exposure to supercritical water at 600°C and 25 MPa. Left: oxide surface appearance of the samples after 100, 300, and 1000 hr of oxidation; right: SEM micrograph at spallation edge for the sample after 1000 hr of oxidation

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In