Research Papers

Irradiation Capabilities at the Halden Reactor and Testing Possibilities Under Supercritical Water Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Rudi Van Nieuwenhove

Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden Reactor Project,
P.B. 173, NO-1751 Halden, Norway
e-mail: rudivn@hrp.no

Manuscript received March 28, 2015; final manuscript received June 5, 2015; published online February 29, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Thomas Schulenberg.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 2(2), 021013 (Feb 29, 2016) (4 pages) Paper No: NERS-15-1033; doi: 10.1115/1.4030798 History: Received March 28, 2015; Accepted June 10, 2015

Different types of instruments have been developed both for in-pile fuel and materials studies at the Halden Reactor Project. In recent years, several of the standard instruments have been upgraded to be able to tolerate much higher temperatures. In particular, several instruments are now able to operate up to 650°C and 25 MPa, thus in the range suitable for supercritical water (SCW) studies. In addition, a feasibility study for an in-pile SCW loop has been carried out that shows that such a loop can be realized in the Halden reactor, allowing for all the instrumentation possibilities that are presently carried out in pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions. Another, and cheaper, alternative is to perform corrosion experiments inside a small capsule in which SCW is maintained by means of gamma heating and external pressure lines. The conceptual designs of the SCW loop and SCW capsule will be highlighted.

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Van Nieuwenhove, R., and Solstad, S., 2010, “In-Core Fuel Performance and Material Characterization in the Halden Reactor,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 57(5), pp. 2683–2688. 10.1109/TNS.2010.2050701
Schulenberg, T., Leung, L., and Oka, Y., 2014, “Review of R&D for Supercritical Water Cooled Reactors,”Prog. Nucl. Energy, 77, pp. 282–299. [CrossRef]
Van Nieuwenhove, R., 2012, “Development and Testing of Instruments for Generation IV Fuels and Materials Research at the Halden Reactor Project,” Proceedings of IAEA Technical Meeting on In-Pile Testing and Instrumentation for Development of GenerationIV Fuels and Materials, Session 1 (Instrumentation Development), Halden, Norway, Aug. 21–24, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria, IAEA TECDOC-CD-1726.
Turba, K., Novotny, R., Nilsson, K.-F., and Hähner, P., 2012, “Progress in the Qualification of Candidate Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Systems at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC-IET),” Nordic Forum for Generation IV Reactors, Status and Activities in 2012, Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS), NKS-270.
Van Nieuwenhove, R., Balak, J., Toivonen, A., Pentiilä, S., and Ehrnsten, U., 2013, “Investigation of Coatings, Applied by PVD, for the Corrosion Protection of Materials in Supercritical Water,” 6th International Symposium on Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors, ISSCWR-6, Shenzhen, Guangdon, China, Mar. 3–7.
Van Nieuwenhove, R., 2014, “IFA-774: the First In-Pile Test With Coated Fuel Rods,” Enlarged Halden Program Group Meeting, Røros, Sept. 7–12, Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, Halden, Norway, HWR-1106.
Vierstraete, P., Van Nieuwenhove, R., and Lauritzen, B., 2012, “NOMAGE4 Activities 2011, Part II, Supercritical Water Loop,” Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS), NKS-255.


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Fig. 1

Principle of the LVDT: (a) primary coil, (b) secondary coil, (c) ferrite core, and (d) signal cables

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Fig. 2

CT specimen for crack growth measurements

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Fig. 3

Picture of a reference electrode for use in SCW

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Fig. 4

Picture of the Pt-reference electrode

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Fig. 5

Schematic drawing of the SCW loop in the Halden reactor

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Fig. 6

Drawing (cut-open view) of the proposed capsule for materials testing in SCW in the core of the Halden reactor

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Fig. 7

Temperature distribution within the SCW capsule

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Fig. 8

Temperature distribution along the surface of the cylindrical sample



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