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Research Papers

European Project “Supercritical Water Reactor-Fuel Qualification Test”: Summary of General Corrosion Tests

[+] Author and Article Information
Radek Novotný

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport,
Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten, The Netherlands
e-mail: Radek.Novotny@ec.europa.eu

Přemysl Janík

European Space Research and Technology Centre,
Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands
e-mail: janikpremek@gmail.com

Aki Toivonen

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.,
P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
e-mail: Aki.Toivonen@vtt.fi

Anna Ruiz

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport,
Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten, The Netherlands
e-mail: Anna.Ruiz@ec.europa.eu

Zoltan Szaraz

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport,
Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten, The Netherlands
e-mail: Zoltan.Szaraz@ec.europa.eu

Lefu Zhang

School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
No. 800, Dong Chuan Road, 200240 Shanghai, China
e-mail: lfzhang@sjtu.edu.cn

Jan Siegl

Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University Prague,
Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2, Czech Republic
e-mail: Jan.Siegl@fjfi.cvut.cz

Petr Haušild

Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University Prague,
Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2, Czech Republic
e-mail: Petr.Hausild@fjfi.cvut.cz

Sami Penttilä

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.,
P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
e-mail: Sami.Penttilä@vtt.fi

Jan Macák

Power Engineering Department,
Institute of Chemical Technology,
Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
e-mail: Jan.Macak@vscht.cz

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 26, 2015; final manuscript received January 21, 2016; published online June 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Thomas Schulenberg.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 2(3), 031007 (Jun 17, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: NERS-15-1097; doi: 10.1115/1.4032871 History: Received May 26, 2015; Accepted January 21, 2016

The main target of the EUROATOM FP7 project “Fuel Qualification Test for SCWR” is to make significant progress toward the design, analysis, and licensing of a fuel assembly cooled with supercritical water in a research reactor. The program of dedicated Work Package (WP4)-Prequalification was focused on evaluation of general corrosion resistance of three preselected austenitic stainless steels, 08Cr18Ni10Ti, AISI 347H, and AISI 316L, which should be prequalified for application as a cladding material for fuel qualification tests in supercritical water. Therefore, the experiments in support of WP4 concentrated on 2000-hr corrosion exposures in 25-MPa supercritical water (SCW) at two different temperatures 550°C and 500°C dosed with both 150 and 2000 ppb of dissolved oxygen content. Moreover, the water chemistry effect was investigated by conducting tests in 550°C SCW with 1.5 ppm of dissolved hydrogen content. At first, corrosion coupons were exposed for 600, 1400, and 2000 hrs in Joint Research Centre-Institute for Energy and Transport (JRC-IET), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. (VTT), and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) autoclaves connected to the recirculation loop, allowing continual water chemistry control during the test. The following examination of exposed specimens consisted of weight-change calculations and detailed macro- and microscopic investigation of oxide layers using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). With respect to general corrosion results, all tested steels showed sufficient corrosion resistance in SCW conditions taking into account the conditions foreseen for future fuel qualification test in the research reactor in CVR Rez. When the results of weight-change calculations were compared for all three materials, it was found that the corrosion resistance increased in the following order: 316L<347H<08Cr18Ni10Ti. Results obtained in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) did not indicate any significant beneficial effect compared to tests in SCW with 150 or 2000 ppb dissolved oxygen content. Additional tests were dedicated to investigation of the surface-finish effect. In these exposures, polished, sand-blasted, and plane-milled surface-finish techniques were investigated. The beneficial effect of surface cold work in particular of sand-blasting was clearly demonstrated.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the coupon specimens

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Fig. 2

Specimen-holder racks with the test coupons

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Fig. 3

Plot of (a) weight change and (b) maximum oxide thickness as a function of exposure time obtained for 08Cr18Ni10Ti, 316L, and 347H plane-milled specimens after 600, 1400, and 2000 hrs of exposure to 500°C and 550°C (a) and 550°C (b), 25-MPa SCW [12].

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Fig. 4

Cross-sectional SEM images of the specimens exposed for 2000 hrs in 550°C SCW with 2000 ppb of dissolved O2 [12]

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Fig. 5

EDX line scans across the oxide layers of (a) 347H and (b) 316L specimens after 2000 hrs of exposure in 550°C SCW [12]

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Fig. 6

Plot of (a) weight gain and (b) maximum oxide thickness as a function of exposure time obtained for 316L and 347H plane-milled specimens after 600 and 1200 hrs exposure to 550°C, 25-MPa SCW with 2000 ppb of dissolved oxygen content.

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Fig. 7

Cross-sectional SEM images of the specimens exposed for 1200 hrs in 550°C SCW with 2000 ppb of dissolved O2 with flow rate equal to 0.005  m3/h

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Fig. 8

EDX point scans were taken at three different locations across the oxide layers of (a) 347H and (b) 316L specimens after 1200 hrs exposure in 550°C SCW

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Fig. 9

Plots of weight change as a function of exposure time obtained for 08Cr18Ni10Ti, 316L, and 347H specimens after exposure to 550°C, 25-MPa SCW with (a) 2000 ppb of dissolved O2 content (JRC-IET), (a, b) 150 ppb of dissolved O2 content (VTT), and (b) 1.5 ppm of dissolved H2 content (SJTU).

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Fig. 10

Cross-sectional SEM images of (a) 347H and (b) 316L specimens after 3610 hrs exposure to 550°C/25  MPa NWC SCW

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Fig. 11

Cross-sectional SEM images of (a) 347H and (b) 316L specimens after 1500 hrs exposure to 550°C/25  MPa HWC SCW

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Fig. 12

Cross-sectional SEM images of (a) 347H and (b) 316L specimens after 1500 hrs exposure to 550°C/25  MPa HWC SCW

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