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Research Papers

On Calculating Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Supercritical-Pressure Coolants

[+] Author and Article Information
Vladimir A. Kurganov

Heat Transfer Division, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Izhorskaya 13, bld. 2, Moscow 125412, Russia
e-mail: ivanov@oivtran.ru

Yuri A. Zeigarnik

Heat Transfer Division, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Izhorskaya 13, bld. 2, Moscow 125412, Russia
e-mail: zeigar@oivtran.ru

Irina V. Maslakova

Heat Transfer Division, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Izhorskaya 13, bld. 2, Moscow 125412, Russia
e-mail: i.v.maslakova@yandex.ru

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 13, 2015; final manuscript received October 30, 2015; published online June 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Igor Pioro.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 2(3), 031012 (Jun 17, 2016) (14 pages) Paper No: NERS-15-1162; doi: 10.1115/1.4032440 History: Received July 13, 2015; Accepted January 01, 2016

Specific features of thermophysical properties of single-phase supercritical-pressure (SCP) coolants and typical ranges of their thermodynamic state that determine heat-transfer regularities are presented. A brief analysis of the existing concepts on SCP-coolants heat transfer under turbulent flow in tube is given. Typical features of normal and deteriorated heat-transfer regimes are described. The simple classification of deteriorated heat-transfer regimes at high heat loads that make it possible to distinguish the causes and appraise a degree of heat-transfer deterioration danger is proposed. The results from the studies of the hydraulic-resistance structure under the regimes of normal and deteriorated heat transfer are considered and the conditions, when a one-dimensional (1-D) (homogeneous) flow model can be used in hydraulic calculations, are revealed. Using sounding measurements data, the interrelation between heat-transfer deterioration and radical changes in the averaged turbulent flow structure due to fluid thermal acceleration and Archimedes forces effects is analyzed. The recommendations on calculating normal heat transfer with an account of refined standards on thermophysical properties of water and carbon dioxide are presented. The review and analysis of the existing criteria for forecasting heat-transfer deterioration and assessing the boundaries of the normal heat-transfer range are given, and the correlations for describing deteriorated heat transfer are presented.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Some thermophysical properties of water as a function of enthalpy (a) and thermal expansion parameter Eq (b). (a) ρ,  μ,  λ, Pr according to [15,16] and μ′,  λ′,  Pr′, according to IF-97 formulation [18]. (b) 1−p=24.5  MPa; 2−p=100  kPa

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Fig. 2

Wall-temperature regimes under SCP-water heating in a tube 3.9 mm in diameter (p=24.5  MPa) [18]

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Fig. 3

Schematic presentation of deteriorated heat-transfer regimes in vertical tubes at qw≅const and high heat loads depending on the scale of Archimedes forces. Solid lines stand for upward flow, point line for possible version of upward flow, and dashed lines for downward flow (a) and the value of the buoyancy-effect parameter Fg in different groups of heat-transfer regime in Table 1 (b)

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Fig. 4

Local resistance coefficients in the deteriorated heat-transfer regimes under SCP CO2 heating in 8-mm tube [37]. (a) and (b) ρu¯=2120  kg/m2 s; (c) and (d) ρu¯=3250  kg/m2 s

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Fig. 5

Changes along the tube length in the velocity and shear-stress profiles (solid lines) in the deteriorated heat-transfer regimes [44] (CO2; 9.0 MPa; upward flow in 22.7 mm tube: hin=556  kJ/kg, ρu¯=2110  kg/m2 s, qw/ρu¯=0.201  kJ/kg). (1), (2) shear stress and velocity profiles under constant physical properties conditions; (3) limiting τ/τw distribution in the boundary regime of normal heat transfer: (τ/τw)lim≅1−3Y; (4) hypothetical distributions.

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