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Research Papers

Performance of High-Temperature Materials for Efficient Power Plants: The Waterside Challenge

[+] Author and Article Information
Pertti Auerkari

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.,
POB 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
e-mail: pertti.auerkari@vtt.fi

Sanni Yli-Olli

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.,
POB 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
e-mail: sanni.yli-olli@vtt.fi

Sami Penttilä

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.,
POB 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
e-mail: sami.penttila@vtt.fi

Satu Tuurna

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.,
POB 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
e-mail: satu.tuurna@vtt.fi

Rami Pohja

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.,
POB 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
e-mail: rami.pohja@vtt.fi

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 31, 2015; final manuscript received February 3, 2016; published online June 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Thomas Schulenberg.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 2(3), 031009 (Jun 17, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: NERS-15-1108; doi: 10.1115/1.4032783 History: Received May 31, 2015; Accepted February 03, 2016

Supercritical (SC) service at high operating values aims for good plant efficiency, but the waterside oxidation resistance can then become life-limiting. In this paper, selected materials and modeling options are compared for life assessment under waterside SC oxidation, particularly for thermal power plants that increasingly need to accommodate cyclic service, fast ramping, and low minimum loads to an extent to which the conventional design practices and materials solutions only partially accounted. For example, the life reduction by high-temperature oxidation and corrosion via lost load-bearing wall thickness is more easily accommodated than the impact on crack growth or material ductility.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Heat-rate development in (European) thermal power plants since 1900; data from Refs. [1,2]

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Fig. 2

Developing flexibility for cycling and ramping of thermal plants; data from Refs. [3-5]. CC, combined cycle; SOTA, state-of-the-art; Pmin, Pmax, minimum, maximum unit power

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Fig. 3

Predicted parabolic steamside oxide growth for 9% Cr (solid lines) and 11% Cr steels (dashed lines) at 580°C and 650°C; the ring corresponds to prediction for 9% Cr steel at 600°C

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Fig. 4

Predicted growth from the second model for (a) 9% Cr (solid lines) and 11% Cr steels (dashed lines) at 580°C, 600°C, and 650°C, with a ring marker for 9% Cr steel at 600°C and (b) predicted growth as a function time and temperature (PLM) and modified Cr and Ni equivalents (Pox) for ferritic Cr steels.

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Fig. 5

From the third model, predicted oxidation of 9% Cr steels [15] with a ring marker for 1000 hrs at 600°C

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Fig. 6

Predicted oxide thickness by the three oxidation models for 9% Cr (T91) and 11% Cr steel (X20=X20CrMoV11-1) after 1000 hrs of exposure

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Fig. 7

(a) Internal oxide of a X20 superheater tube after more than 100,000 hrs in service; scale bar=100  μm and (b) oxide on 9% Cr steel (MARBN), grown in SC water for 1000 hrs at 650°C/25  MPa; scale bar=50  μm.

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Fig. 8

(a) Predicted range of X20 oxide thickness at 580°C±3.8°C (mean±SD) and (b) corresponding exceedance probability for oxide thickness (model 1)

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Fig. 9

(a) Predicted oxide thickness for 11.25±0.45% Cr (mean±SD) in X20 at 580±3.8°C and (b) corresponding exceedance probability for oxide thickness (model 2)

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Fig. 10

(a) Design/lifing limits for creep and fatigue life assessment, with creep–fatigue (CF) test results of P91 and (b) high-temperature oxidation promoting crack growth

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