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Research Papers

Saturated Pool Nucleate Boiling on Heat Transfer Surface With Deposited Sea Salts

[+] Author and Article Information
Shinichiro Uesawa

Japan Atomic Energy Agency,
2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura,
Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195, Japan
e-mail: uesawa.shinichiro@jaea.go.jp

Yasuo Koizumi

Japan Atomic Energy Agency,
2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura,
Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195, Japan
e-mail: koizumiy@shinshu-u.ac.jp

Mitsuhiko Shibata

Japan Atomic Energy Agency,
2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura,
Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195, Japan
e-mail: shibata.mitsuhiko@jaea.go.jp

Hiroyuki Yoshida

Japan Atomic Energy Agency,
2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura,
Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195, Japan
e-mail: yoshida.hiroyuki@jaea.go.jp

Manuscript received December 8, 2016; final manuscript received May 15, 2017; published online July 31, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Leon Cizelj.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 3(4), 041002 (Jul 31, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: NERS-16-1165; doi: 10.1115/1.4036987 History: Received December 08, 2016; Revised May 15, 2017

Seawater was injected into the reactor cores following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Saturated pool nucleate boiling heat transfer experiments with NaCl solution, natural seawater, and artificial seawater as well as distilled water were performed to examine the effects of salts on boiling heat transfer. The heat transfer surface was made of a printed copper circuit board. The boiling phenomena were recorded with a high-speed video camera. The surface-temperature distribution was measured with an infrared camera. In the experiments, the concentrations of the NaCl solutions and the artificial seawater were varied over a range of 3.5–10.0 wt. %. Boiling curves were well predicted with the Rohsenow correlation although large coalescent bubble formation was inhibited in the NaCl, natural seawater, and artificial seawater experiments. Deposits of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) on the heat transfer surface were observed in the experiments with artificial seawater. This formation of a deposit layer resulted in the initiation of a slow surface-temperature excursion at a heat flux lower than the usual critical heat flux (CHF). A unique relationship was confirmed between the salt concentrations of the artificial seawater in the bulk fluid and the vaporization rate at the surface at which the slow surface-temperature excursion initiated. This relationship suggested that if the bulk concentration of sea salts in the seawater exceeded 11 wt. %, the deposition of calcium sulfate on the heat transfer surface occurred even if the heat flux was zero.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus

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Fig. 2

Heat transfer surface: (a) top of the heat transfer surface and (b) underside of the heat transfer surface

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Fig. 3

Boiling curves for water, NaCl solutions, natural, and artificial seawater: (a) NaCl solution and (b) seawater

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Fig. 4

(a) Bubble behavior and temperature distributions in water and the NaCl solutions at low heat flux (50 kW/m2) and (b) bubble behavior and temperature distributions in natural seawater and the artificial seawater at low heat flux (50 kW/m2)

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Fig. 5

Time variations of the spatially averaged temperature calculated from the temperature distributions at low heat flux: (a) NaCl solution and (b) seawater

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Fig. 6

(a) Bubble behavior and temperature distributions in water and NaCl solutions at high heat flux (450 kW/m2) and (b) bubble behavior and temperature distributions in natural and artificial seawater at high heat flux (450 kW/m2)

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Fig. 7

Time variations of the spatially averaged temperature calculated from the temperature distributions at high heat flux: (a) NaCl solution and (b) seawater

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Fig. 8

Microscope image (left) and height distribution (right) of heat transfer surface: (a) sea 10.0 wt. % (third) and (b) NaCl 10.0 wt. %

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Fig. 9

High-resolution 3D image of deposit surface made with microscope

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Fig. 10

Deposit layer thicknesses and deposit-surface temperatures (sea 10.0 wt. % (third))

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Fig. 11

Time variation of heat transfer surface temperature time variation and growth of deposit

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Fig. 12

Relationship of vaporization rate to initial salt concentration

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