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Research Papers

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in a Full-Scale Konvoi-Type Pressurized Water Reactor

[+] Author and Article Information
Josef Hasslberger

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: hasslberger@td.mw.tum.de

Peter Katzy, Lorenz R. Boeck, Thomas Sattelmayer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 13, 2016; final manuscript received June 14, 2017; published online July 31, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Asif Arastu.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 3(4), 041014 (Jul 31, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: NERS-16-1103; doi: 10.1115/1.4037094 History: Received September 13, 2016; Revised June 14, 2017

For the purpose of nuclear safety analysis, a reactive flow solver has been developed to determine the hazardous potential of large-scale hydrogen explosions. Without using empirical transition criteria, the whole combustion process including deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) is computed within a single solver framework. In this paper, we present massively parallelized three-dimensional explosion simulations in a full-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) of the Konvoi type. Several generic DDT scenarios in globally lean hydrogen–air mixtures are examined to assess the importance of different input parameters. It is demonstrated that the explosion process is highly sensitive to mixture composition, ignition location, and thermodynamic initial conditions. Pressure loads on the confining structure show a profoundly dynamic behavior depending on the position in the containment. Computational cost can effectively be reduced through adaptive mesh refinement (AMR).

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sectional view of the Konvoi-type pressurized water reactor model

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Fig. 2

Ignition (purple) and pressure probe locations (blue) (see color figure online)

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Fig. 3

Initial one-dimensional vertical concentration gradients in the containment

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Fig. 4

Case 1: explosion of homogeneous mixture visualized by pressure field (bar) and flame front (white); X¯H2=17.5%; ΔXH2=0%; ignition location 1: (a) 300 ms (left) and 400 ms (right) after ignition, (b) 450 and 460 ms, and (c) 470 and 480 ms

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Fig. 5

Case 1: dynamic pressure recordings at probing locations P1–P5 compared to AICC pressure; X¯H2=17.5%; ΔXH2=0% (homogeneous); ignition location 1

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Fig. 6

Case 2: explosion of gradient mixture visualized by pressure field (bar) and flame front (white); X¯H2=17.5%; b = 0.1; ΔXH2=10%; ignition location 1: (a) 100 ms (left) and 140 ms (right) after ignition, (b) 150 and 155 ms, and (c) 160 and 165 ms

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Fig. 7

Case 2: explosion of gradient mixture visualized by hydrogen mole fraction (%) and flame front (white); X¯H2=17.5%; b = 0.1; ΔXH2=10%; ignition location 1: (a) 100 ms (left) and 140 ms (right) after ignition, (b) 150 and 155 ms, and (c) 160 and 165 ms

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Fig. 8

Case 3: explosion of gradient mixture visualized by pressure field (bar) and flame front (white); X¯H2=15%; b = 0.1; ΔXH2=10%; ignition location 1: (a) 200 ms (left) and 265 ms (right) after ignition, (b) 285 and 290 ms, and (c) 295 and 300 ms

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Fig. 9

Case 4: explosion for bottom ignition visualized by pressure field (bar) and flame front (white); X¯H2=17.5%; ΔXH2=0% (homogeneous); ignition location 2: (a) 200 ms (left) and 250 ms (right) after ignition, (b) 275 and 280 ms, and (c) 285 and 290 ms

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Fig. 10

Case 5: explosion at elevated initial conditions visualized by pressure field (bar) and flame front (white); X¯H2=17.5%; ΔXH2=0% (homogeneous); ignition location 2: (a) 100 ms (left) and 150 ms (right) after ignition and (b) 200 and 250 ms

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Fig. 11

Case 3: adaptively refined regions (red) on the left and pressure field (bar) on the right at 300 ms after ignition; X¯H2=15%; b = 0.1; ΔXH2=10%; ignition location 1

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Fig. 12

Case 3: burnout evolution for varying mesh resolutions; X¯H2=15%; b = 0.1; ΔXH2=10%; ignition location 1

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Fig. 13

Case 3: dynamic pressure recordings at probing locations P1–P5 for varying mesh resolutions; X¯H2=15%; b = 0.1; ΔXH2=10%; ignition location 1

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Fig. 14

Dynamic pressure recordings at probing locations P1–P5 for cases 2, 4, and 5

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