0
SPECIAL SECTION PAPERS

Causes and Radiological Consequences of the Chernobyl and Fukushima Nuclear Accidents

[+] Author and Article Information
L. Sihver

Technische Universität Wien,
Atominstitut,
Stadionallee 2,
Vienna 1020, Austria
e-mail: lembit.sihver@tuwien.ac.at

N. Yasuda

Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering,
University of Fukui,
Tsuruga-shi,
Fukui 914-0055, Japan

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 9, 2016; final manuscript received June 10, 2017; published online March 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Michal Kostal.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 4(2), 020914 (Mar 05, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: NERS-16-1166; doi: 10.1115/1.4037116 History: Received December 09, 2016; Revised June 10, 2017

In this paper, the causes and the radiological consequences of the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor occurred at 1:23 a.m. (local time) on Apr. 26, 1986, and of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster following the huge Tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake at 2.46 p.m. (local time) on Mar. 11, 2011 are discussed. The need for better severe accident management (SAM), and severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs), are essential in order to increase the safety of the existing and future operating nuclear power plants (NPPs). In addition to that, stress tests should, on a regular basis, be performed to assess whether the NPPs can withstand the effects of natural disasters and man-made failures and actions. The differences in safety preparations at the Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi will therefore be presented, as well as recommendations concerning improvements of safety culture, decontamination, and disaster planning. The need for a high-level national emergency response system in case of nuclear accidents will be discussed. The emergency response system should include fast alarms, communication between nuclear power plants, nuclear power authorities and the public people, as well as well-prepared and well-established evacuation plans and evacuation zones. The experiences of disaster planning and the development of a new improved emergency response system in Japan will also be presented together with the training and education program, which have been established to ensure that professional rescue workers, including medical staff, fire fighters, and police, as well as the normal populations including patients, have sufficient knowledge about ionizing radiation and are informed about the meaning of radiation risks and safety.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

IAEA, 2007, “ IAEA Safety Glossary, Terminology Used in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1290_web.pdf
IAEA, 2009, “ Severe Accident Management Programmes for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Guide, No. NS-G-2.15,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. http://www-pub.iaea.org/books/IAEABooks/8088/Severe-Accident-Management-Programmes-for-Nuclear-Power-Plants
UNSCEAR, 2000, “ Exposures and Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (Annex J),” United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Vienna, Austria. http://www.unscear.org/docs/reports/annexj.pdf
UNSCEAR, 2008, “ Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation,” Vol. II, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Vienna, Austria.
UNSCEAR, 2013, “ Annex A - Levels and Effects of Radiation Exposure Due to the Nuclear Accident After the 2011 Great East-Japan Earthquake and Tsunami,” UNSCEAR 2013 Report to the General Assembly With Scientific Annexes, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Vienna, Austria. http://www.unscear.org/docs/reports/2013/13-85418_Report_2013_Annex_A.pdf
IAEA, 1991, “ The International Chernobyl Project,” Technical Report, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub885e_web.pdf
European Commission, International Atomic Energy Agency, and World Health Organization, 1996, “ One Decade After Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
IAEA, 2005, “Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forward,” International Conference on Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forward, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 6–7.
Eslinger, P. W. , Biegalski, S. R. , Bowyer, W. , Cooper, M. W. , Haas, D. A. , Hayes, J. C. , Hoffman, I. , Korpach, E. , Yi, J. , Miley, H. S. , Rishel, J. P. , Ungar, K. , White, B. , and Woods, V. T. , 2014, “ Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released From the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling,” J. Environ. Radioact., 127, pp. 127–132. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stohl, A. , Seibert, A. P. , Wotawa, G. , Arnold, D. , Burkhart, J. F. , Eckhardt, S. , Tapia, C. , Vargas, A. , and Yasunari, T. J. , 2012, “ Xenon-133 and Caesium-137 Releases Into the Atmosphere From the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Determination of the Source Term, Atmospheric Dispersion, and Deposition,” Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12(5), pp. 2313–2343. [CrossRef]
Bowyer, T. W. , Biegalski, S. R. , Cooper, M. , Eslinger, P. W. , Haas, D. , Hayes, J. C. , Miley, H. S. , Strom, D. J. , and Woods, V. , 2011, “ Elevated Radioxenon Detected Remotely Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident,” J. Environ. Radioact., 102(7), pp. 681–687. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schöpper, M. , Plastino, W. , Povinec, P. P. , Wotawa, G. , Bella, F. , Budano, A. , de Vincenzi, M. , and Ruggieri, F. , 2012, “ Estimation of the Time-Dependent Radioactive Source-Term From the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident Using Atmospheric Transport Modelling,” J. Environ. Radioact., 114, pp. 10–14. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Terada, H. , Katata, G. , Chino, M. , and Nagai, H. , 2012, “ Atmospheric Discharge and Dispersion of Radionuclides During the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident—Part II: Verification of the Source Term and Analysis of Regional-Scale Atmospheric Dispersion,” J. Environ. Radioact., 112, pp. 141–154. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Science Council of Japan, 2014, “ A Review of the Model Comparison of Transportation and Deposition of Radioactive Materials Released to the Environment as a Result of the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident,” Science Council of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, accessed July 3, 2017, http://www.jpgu.org/scj/report/20140902scj_report_e.pdf
Chino, M. , Nakayama, H. , Nagai, H. , Terada, H. , Kataka, G. , and Yamazawa, H. , 2011, “ Preliminary Estimation of Release Amounts of 131I and 137Cs Accidentally Discharged From the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Into the Atmosphere,” J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 48(7), pp. 1129–1134. [CrossRef]
Buesseler, K. , Aoyama, M. , and Fukasawa, M. , 2011, “ Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants on Marine Radioactivity,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 45(23), pp. 9931–9935. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
UNSCEAR, 2000, “ Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation,” Vol. I, UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, With Scientific Annexes, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Vienna, Austria.
Ministry of the Environment, 2013, “ Annual Report on the Environment, the Sound Material-Cycle Society and Biodiversity in Japan 2013,” White Paper 2013, Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, accessed July 3, 2017, http://www.env.go.jp/en/wpaper/2013/index.html
TEPCO, 2011, “ Press Releases,” Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo, Japan, accessed July 3, 2017, http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/index1110-e.html
TEPCO, 2012, “ Press Releases,” Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo, Japan, accessed July 3, 2017, http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/2012/12/index-e.html
UNSCEAR, 2015, “ Developments Since the 2013 UNSCEAR Report on the Levels and Effects of Radiation Exposure Due to the Nuclear Accident Following the Great East-Japan Earthquake and Tsunami,” A 2015 White Paper to Guide the Scientific Committee's Future Programme of Work, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Vienna, Austria. http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/Fukushima_WP2015.html
Ishikawa, T. , Yasumura, S. , Ozasa, K. , Kobashi, G. , Yasuda, H. , Miyazaki, M. , Akahane, K. , Yonai, S. , Ohtsuru, A. , Sakai, A. , Sakata, R. , Kamiya, K. , and Abe, M. , 2015, “ The Fukushima Health Management Survey: Estimation of External Doses to Residents in Fukushima Prefecture,” Sci. Rep., 5(1), p. 12712. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tokonami, S. , Hosoda, M. , Akiba, S. , Sorimachi, A. , Kashiwakura, I. , and Mikhail, B. , 2012, “ Thyroid Doses for Evacuees From the Fukushima Nuclear Accident,” Sci. Rep., 2, p. 507. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ministry of Justice, 1999, “ Genshiryoku Saigai Taisaku Tokubetsu Sochi hō [Act in the Japanese Law on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness], Act No. 156 of 1999, Last Amended by Act No. 114 of 2014. Old Version of English Translation (Amended by Act No. 118 of 2006),” Japanese Law Translation Maintained by the Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, accessed July 3, 2017, http://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/law/detail_main?id=106&vm=&re

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Accident management guidance as a structured top-down approach [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In