Research Papers

Characterization of Thermal Striping in Liquid Sodium With Optical Fiber Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthew Weathered

Engineering Physics,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53715
e-mail: weathered@wisc.edu

Jordan Rein

Engineering Physics,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53715
e-mail: jdrein@wisc.edu

Mark Anderson

Engineering Physics,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53715
e-mail: manderson@engr.wisc.edu

Paul Brooks

Engineering Physics,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53715
e-mail: pwbrooks@wisc.edu

Bryan Coddington

Engineering Physics,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53715
e-mail: bryan.coddington@wisc.edu

Manuscript received January 11, 2017; final manuscript received June 12, 2017; published online July 31, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Dmitry Paramonov.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 3(4), 041003 (Jul 31, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: NERS-17-1004; doi: 10.1115/1.4037118 History: Received January 11, 2017; Revised June 12, 2017

This study characterized the magnitude, spatial profile, and frequency spectrum of thermal striping at a junction using a novel sodium-deployable optical fiber temperature sensor. Additionally, this study revealed for the first time the capability of performing cross correlation velocimetry (CCV) with an optical fiber to acquire fluid flow rates in a pipe. Optical fibers were encapsulated in stainless steel capillary tubes with an inert cover gas for high-temperature sodium deployment. Plots of temperature oscillation range as a function of two-dimensional space highlighted locations prone to mechanical failure for particular flow momentum ratios. The effect of inlet sodium temperature differential and bulk flow rate on thermal striping behavior was also explored. The power spectral density (PSD) revealed that the striping temperature oscillations occurred at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 6 Hz. Finally, the bulk flow rate of liquid sodium was calculated from thermal striping's periodic temperature oscillations using cross correlation velocimetry for flow rates of 0.25–5.74 L/min.

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Fig. 1

Encapsulation of optical fiber in capillary for high-temperature system deployment

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Fig. 6

Optical fiber temperature versus time data at two gauge locations

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Fig. 2

University of Wisconsin-Madison sodium loop schematic

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Fig. 3

Thermal striping 90-deg junction geometry

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Fig. 4

Calibrating EM flowmeters in diagnostic loop with Coriolis flowmeter. Calculated uncertainty for EM flowmeter reading: 3.65%. Uncertainty for Coriolis flowmeter from manufacturer: 0.2%.

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Fig. 5

Flow categories illustrated for 90-deg junction

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Fig. 7

Cross correlation of gauges with respect to reference gauge

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Fig. 13

PSD of fibers A1, A2, and A3, test 4

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Fig. 14

Autocorrelation of optical fiber A1 gauge at maximum temperature oscillations, test 4

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Fig. 8

Categorization of thermal striping at junction, tests 1–9. Contour plots depicting temperature range at various momentum ratios.

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Fig. 9

Contour plots depicting temperature range at various sodium stream temperature differentials with a constant momentum ratio of ∼0.7, tests 10–15

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Fig. 10

Maximum temperature range versus sodium stream temperature differential, tests 10–15

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Fig. 11

Maximum normalized temperature range versus Reynolds number, tests 16–37

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Fig. 12

Fiber A1 normalized temperature difference from mean versus length versus time, test 4

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Fig. 15

Cross correlation velocimetry flow rate as a function of electromagnetic flow meter reading



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