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Technical Brief

Research Progress of Red Oil Explosion Accidents in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant PUBLIC ACCESS

[+] Author and Article Information
Chunlong Zhang

Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center,
Beijing 100082, China;
China Institute of Atomic Energy,
Beijing 102413, China

Hui He

China Institute of Atomic Energy,
Beijing 102413, China

Shangui Zhao, Shijun Wang, XinHua Liu

Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center,
Beijing 100082, China

Manuscript received October 28, 2017; final manuscript received February 25, 2018; published online May 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Akos Horvath.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 4(3), 034502 (May 16, 2018) (3 pages) Paper No: NERS-17-1204; doi: 10.1115/1.4039599 History: Received October 28, 2017; Revised February 25, 2018

From 1953 to now, it has happened six times so-called red oil explosion accidents worldwide, resulting in different degrees of equipment and construction damage and environmental contamination. And research related to red oil has never stopped. Preventive measures for red oil explosion were established in some reports, and these measures provided good practice experience and reference for other countries. Nevertheless, research conclusions and knowledge of red oil vary from country to country. Especially, investigations on stability of tributyl phosphate (TBP)—nitric system was made in recent years, and the results indicated that the red oil runway reaction will happen even in lower temperature and lower nitric acid concentration in contrast with the reported value. Therefore, in order to facilitate future study on red oil explosion, related research results of red oil explosion accidents were combed in this paper, and the characters of study work of different periods were also summarized, and definition, formation conditions of red oil were analyzed and compared, as well as the new viewpoints of recent literatures.

Since Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) of America first applied plutonium uranium redox extraction process (PUREX) in 1954, PUREX process is always the top priority in nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. And, this process is based on liquid to liquid extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the extractant [1]. TBP is irreplaceable in the development of PUREX process in nuclear fuel reprocessing; its advantages are well recognized. However, TBP does have some disadvantages such as formation of red oil, which will appear in the system of high nitric acid concentration and heavy metal nitrate; once the red oil forms, it can lead to an exothermic runaway decomposition in reasonable conditions, such as exceeding a certain temperature (typically 130 °C) or high acid concentration. If gas products and energy released from the decomposition reaction could not be exported in time, it will lead to vessel over-pressure and caused violent explosion accidents. By now, it has happened six times so-called red oil explosion accidents worldwide [26], resulting in different degrees of equipment and construction damage and environmental contamination. From 1953 to now, research related to red oil has never stopped. WSRC [7], Hanford Company [8], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [9], and Los Alamos National Laboratory of America [10] have conducted many studies, as well as some research institutions from Russia [11], United Kingdom, and India [1214]. These studies provide a good reference for us to understand and recognize the red oil explosion accidents and their hazards, and also give us good practical experience.

In this paper, related research results of red oil explosion accidents were combed, and the characters of study work of different periods were summarized, and definition, formation conditions of red oil were analyzed and compared, as well as the new viewpoints of recent literatures.

Synthesis of Red Oil.

Since there is no specific composition of the red oil, the literature on attempting to synthesize red oil has previously set several criteria. Such as organic-based material, dense, in range of 1.10–1.50 g/cm2, undergoing exothermic decomposition, and phase inversion [10], release of brown smoke (caused by NO2 in the gaseous product) [15].

The main method for synthesis of red oil:

  • (i)Reflux: Reflux of uranyl nitrate, nitric acid, TBP and diluent, prolonged reflux of aqueous and organic phase [710,16]. Previous work used this method to produce organic phases with densities ranging from 0.97 to 1.25 g/L, the phenomenon of “phase inversion” is more likely to occur when a diluent containing naphthenic hydrocarbon is used; however, the use of high purity n-dodecane as diluents did not appear “phase inversion” phenomenon [10]. Wilbourn [16] conducted simulated concentrator experiments to produce red oil under reflux conditions, organic phase and aqueous phase which contained nitric acid and nitrate were heated to a certain temperature, and then observed whether a violent reaction occurring or the phenomenon of solvent nitration (releasing of nitrogen oxide gas). Hyder [7] carried out a series of experiments about decomposition of TBP and nitric acid under reflux conditions. And, the gaseous product was discharged into a collection vessel using inert helium gas and analyzed by gas chromatography.
  • (ii)Distillation: Aqueous and organic phase were mixed then reduced the volume to produce high-density material by distillation [8,10]. This method is easier to prepare high density of the red oil substances. Gordon et al. [10] used this method to reduce the mixture to a third of their original volume and produced red oil (as defined) with densities ranging from 1.09 to 1.45 g/L. Hyder [7] also used this procedure to collect distillate, and then chromatography was performed.
  • (iii)Bomb reactor: In this procedure, TBP-diluent and aqueous solution were usually sealed into a high-pressure and high-temperature vessel, then heated up to high temperature for several hours or days, and organic phase was recovered for further analyzed. From a safety point of view, this reactor is commonly equipped with rupture disk. Two rapid over-pressurizations, which resulting in rupture disk failure, were observed by Gordon et al. [10], and dark red organic material was produced. DuPont Company [1] conducted related experiments, in which a mixture of TBP, metal nitrate, nitric acid, and water was sealed into a 1.7 L pressure vessel, pressure and temperature of mixture were monitored during the heating process until the reaction was complete. It was found that there would cause spontaneous ignition of the gas when its temperature reach 184 °C, and the temperature must be limited and proper ventilation must be provided to ensure safe operation.

Red oil also was synthesized by using 100% TBP equilibrated with 2 mol/L nitric acid at 150 °C in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure [17]. Kumar et al. [14,18] carried out studies of runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid at elevated temperature in high-pressure autoclave setup, red oil substance was produced, and red oil event was observed in the experiments with 2 mol/L nitric acid.

Calorimetric Study.

In the calorimetric study of red oil, several experimental methods were reported in the literature, such as differential thermal analysis [19], differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) [19], venting sizing package [20], reactive system screening tool [20], acceleration rate calorimeter (ARC) [1214].

Barney et al. [19] conducted DSC experiments on chemical behavior of TBP at high temperature, energy release of TBP decomposition in different nitric acidity ranging from 100 to 140 cal/g. DSC was also used by Gordon et al. [10] to determine the energy content of red oil substance, the values ranging from 7.2 to 106.1 cal/g at atmospheric pressure, and it is believed that in a closed and adiabatic system, the red oil substance can release energy and gas rapidly if additional oxidants are present, but the energy of the red oil substance is moderate if only the red oil species is present in the open vessel.

Smitha et al. [13] conducted ARC studies on TBP and nitric acid reaction, the results indicated that red oil can form at temperature as low as 75 °C. It was suggested that typical safety limits for preventing red oil formation should be reassessed.

Another literature [21] also indicated that runaway reaction of mixture of nitric acid (15.6 mol/L) and neat TBP can take place at low temperature just 89 °C. In addition, large amounts of thermochemical data of TBP–HNO3 system were shown in this literature, as well as some comparisons of those thermochemical data from that of previously reported.

It can be seen that there are different research methods and conditions on the thermal runaway decomposition of TBP–HNO3, and the kinetic data and conclusions obtained are not uniform. Therefore, a more standard research method or means should be adopted.

Red Oil Formation and Characterization.

Gordon et al. [10] used several analysis methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infra-red spectroscopy, etc., to obtain spectroscopic data for laboratory-produced “red oil,” and nitrated diluent components were identified when the diluent contained a significant proportion of cyclic components.

With Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as the end products analysis technology in ARC studies, a predicted mechanism for the conversion of TBP to red oil was also posed [12].

Effect of Composition in System.

Early studies [6,8,9] have suggested that the conditions for producing red oil are high temperature, large amounts of organic phase, TBP, metal ions (uranium, thorium, etc.), nitric acid, and naphthenic-containing diluents. The diluent used in the 1953 red oil accident in the U.S. contained significant amounts of naphthenes, and subsequent studies compared cycloalkanes with straight-chain alkanes. It was believed that only naphthenic-containing diluents could form red oil, red color is produced by the reaction of cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitric acid in the diluent. These diluents with large amounts of naphthenes are no longer used in PUREX process (except in the UK). In addition, the diluent may have been removed by distillation before the accident which occurred in the U.S. [7], and it is believed that the presence of the diluent can dilute the TBP and nitric acid in the organic phase, reducing reaction rates and heat, so diluent may be a positive factor for the suppression of runaway reaction of red oil. However, it was suggested by other literatures [15] that the presence of diluents and metal ions may exacerbate the thermal runaway reaction of the red oil.

However, after Tomsk-7 red oil explosion in 1993, some institutions conducted related experimental research, giving a new understanding of the reaction of red oil, such as Smith et al. [22], they found that heating TBP and nitric acid in the closed system can also form the red oil and can cause the same accidental consequences. Studies from DuPont Company [1] and Kumar et al. [1214] also showed that in systems with nitric acid and TBP alone or even only presence of the nitric acid saturated TBP phase, it can also cause an explosion when heated to a certain temperature. It is suggested that energetic increases with increasing concentration of nitric acid [20], and conditions for red oil formation may vary with aqueous acid concentration [13].

Keeping nitric acid concentration below 10 mol/L is adopted as a preventive measure by the U.S. Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DFNSB) [15]; it is also suggested that the higher the temperature, the lower the concentration of nitric acid needed for thermal runaway reaction. Red oil also was synthesized by using 100% TBP equilibrated with 2 mol/L nitric acid at 150 °C in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure [17], and increase of concentration of nitric acid enhanced gas yield as well as the rate of hydrolysis of TBP. Therefore, it indicates that 10 mol/L limit is not valid, and new limit for prevention red oil is required [18].

All in all, for the effect of composition in system, the most likely key factor for the thermal runaway reaction of red oil is the thermal decomposition of TBP and nitric acid, and the metal ions and diluent are the contributing factors. And for diluent, it may play a positive factor for suppression of runaway reaction of red oil in open system, because it can take heat away by evaporation, but under sealed or adiabatic conditions it may decrease the initial temperature of the thermal runaway reaction because of its low flash point and boiling point.

Effect of Temperature.

Keeping temperature below 130 °C seems to be an always safe limit from early studies, such as Ref. 9, it was suggested that uranium-TBP adduct can undergo rapid chemical decomposition at temperatures of at least 150 °C. Related study carried out by DuPont company [1] showed that the system temperature and pressure began to steadily increase when temperature exceeding 130 °C, and the gas space temperature and pressure suddenly jumped to a very high value in a very short time when the liquid temperature ranging from 158 °C to 225 °C. Hyder et al. [7] conducted a study on the safe handling of TBP–nitrate in nuclear process industry, suggested that the temperature of the evaporator should not exceed 130 °C (neither surface nor local). Based on these results, the temperature limit of steam heating evaporator was set at 130 °C in WSRC. This limit is also adopted by the U.S. DFNSB as one of four preventive measures [15].

But for closed systems (no venting), 130 °C appears to be no longer effective. WSRC carried out safety venting tests [20] and indicated that the self-heating reaction temperature is 130 °C for a system at atmospheric pressure, and 116 °C for a closed system. In view of this, DFNSB recommended this measure cannot be used alone. In addition, as discussed earlier, Smitha et al. [13] and Chandran et al. [21] conducted studies on TBP and nitric acid reaction recently and indicated that red oil can form at temperature as low as 75 °C and 89 °C.

It should be pointed out that the closed or adiabatic conditions are approximate ideal model, related studies can provide the basis for theoretical calculations, but in the actual operation, heat loss of equipment such as heat dissipation, conduction and convection should also be considered.

Temperature control is one of the most important measures to prevent the red oil explosion, the latest study on temperature limits is worthy of our attention, and it is necessary to carry out further research.

Ventilation.

Westinghouse Savannah River Company carried out series of tests by reactive system screening tool and venting sizing package [20], the relationship between vent size, reaction mass and over-pressure was obtained with TBP saturated with 15 molar nitric acid. And, their studies indicate that the self-heating reaction temperature is 116 °C for a closed system, lower than conventional value of 130 °C.

Ventilation of the vessels is the first defense against a damage runaway reaction [7]. Fauske and Associates obtained the data of vent size by adiabatic calorimetry, it suggested that vent area per unit mass greater than ∼1 × 10−2 mm2/g would prevent over-pressurization in that system [23].

It is not hard to understand that evaporation and convection can take heat away in open system, thus will keep the temperature of system from self-heating reaction temperature, and avoid over-pressurization, but under sealed or adiabatic conditions it become dangerous because of heat accumulation and pressure surge. So, adequate ventilation is very important to prevent over-pressurization and self-heating reaction.

Preventive Measure for Red Oil Explosion.

U.S. DFNSB issued a technical report in 2003 [15], four preventive measures (as shown in the following) for red oil explosion were established.

  • (i)Temperature: maintain at less than 130 °C.
  • (ii)Pressure: provide a sufficient vent for the process.
  • (iii)Mass: remove organics from the process.
  • (iv)Concentration: maintain nitric acid less than 10 mol/L.

These measures provided with good practice experience and reference for other countries. And the temperature condition (≤130 °C) and nitric acid concentration (≤10 mol/L) for preventing red oil explosion are employed in some countries which has built the reprocessing plant.

Nevertheless, as discussed earlier, research conclusions and knowledge of red oil vary from country to country. Especially, recent investigation [13,21] on stability of TBP–nitric system indicated that the red oil runway reaction would happen even in lower temperature and lower nitric acid concentration in contrast with the reported value, and they suggested that it would need a further study to reassess the validity of present preventive measures and to rebuild the safety limits for preventing red oil explosion in the operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

  • (i)Red oil is unstable substances, can be formed when organic phase contacts with nitrate solution under certain conditions, it has no specific composition, but should contain TBP and nitric acid at least.
  • (ii)Recent studies show that the limits of temperature (≤130 °C) and nitric acid concentration (≤10 mol/L) for preventing red oil explosion are not always safe, so those preventive measures recommended by DFNSB should not be used alone.
  • (iii)The understanding of the red oil phenomenon is not consistent, a further study need to be conducted to evaluate the validity of present limits.

  • ARC =

    acceleration rate calorimeter

  • DFNSB =

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Washington, DC)

  • DSC =

    differential scanning calorimetry

  • PUREX =

    plutonium uranium redox extraction process

  • TBP =

    tributyl phosphate

  • WSRC =

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company

Ren, F. Y. , and Zhou, Z. X. , 2006, Foreign Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, Atomic Energy Press, Beijing, China, p. 117.
Gray, L. W. , 1978, “ Explosion and Fire During Conversion of Liquid Uranyl Nitrate to Solid Uranium Oxide,” Nucl. Saf., 19(1), pp. 1–91.
McKibben, J. M. , 1975, “Explosion and Fire in the Uranium Trioxide Production Facilities at the Savannah River Plant on February 12,”Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC, Report No. DPSPU 76111.
Durant, W. S. , 1983, “Red Oil Explosions at the Savannah River Plant,” Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC, Report No. DP-MS-83-142. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15052580
James, N. J. , and Sheppard, G. T. , 1991, “ Red Oil Hazards in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 130 (1), pp. 59–69. [CrossRef]
Colven , T. J., Jr., Nichols , G. M. , and Siddall, T. H. , 1953, “TNX Evaporator Incident January 12, 1953,” Savannah River Laboratory, Augusta, GA, Report No. DP-25.
Hyder, M. L. , 1994, “Safe Handling of TBP and Nitrates in the Nuclear Process Industry,” Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC, Report No. WSRC-TR-94-0372. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26032441
Wagner, R. M. , 1953, “Investigation of Explosive Characteristics of PUREX Solvent Decomposition Products (Red Oil),” Hanford Woks, Richland, WA, Report No. HW-27492.
Campbell, D. O. , and Mailen, J. C. , 1988, “The Red-Oil Problem and Its Impact on PUREX Safety,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No. ORNL/TM-10798.
Gordon, P. L. , O'Dell, C. , and Watkin, J. G. , 1994, “ Synthesis and Energetic Content of Red Oil,” J. Hazard. Mater., 39(1), pp. 87–105. [CrossRef]
Usachev, V. N. , and Markov, G. S. , 2003, “ Incidents Caused by Red Oil Phenomena at Semi-Scale and Industrial Radiochemical Units,” Radiochemistry, 45(1), pp. 1–8.
Kumar, S. , Sinha, P. K. , Kamachi Mudali, U. , and Natarajan, R. , 2001, “ Thermal Decomposition of Red-Oil/Nitric Acid Mixtures in Adiabatic Conditions,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 289(2), pp. 545–549. [CrossRef]
Smitha, V. S. , Surianarayanan, M. , Seshadri, H. , Lakshman, N. V. , and Mandal, A. B. , 2012, “ Reactive Thermal Hazards of Tributyl Phosphate With Nitric Acid,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51(21), pp. 7205–7210. [CrossRef]
Das, B. , Mondal, P. , and Kumar, S. , 2011, “ Pressurization Studies in a Sealed Autoclave for Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated TBP and TiAP,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 288(2), pp. 641–643. [CrossRef]
Robinson, R. N. , Gutowski, D. M. , and Yenliscavich, W. , 2003, “Control of Red Oil Explosions in Defense Nuclear Facilities,” Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. DFNSB/Tech-33.
Wilbourn, R. G. , 1977, “Safety Aspects of Solvent Nitration in HTGR Fuel Reprocessing,” General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA, Report No. GA-Al4372. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:9362347
Palit, L. K. , Gaikar, V. G. , Kumar, S. , Mudali, U. K. , and Natarajan, R. , 2012, “ Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate in a Flow Reactor,” ISRN Chem. Eng., 2012(3–4), p. 193862.
Kumar, S. S. , 2009, “ Synthesis of Red-Oil and Related Studies,” Science-52, http://www.igcar.gov.in/pttc/rpg/52-sci.pdf
Barney, G. S. , and Cooper, T. D. , 1994, “The Chemistry of Tributyl Phosphate at Elevated Temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels,” Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA, WHC-EP-0737. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25063512
Paddleford, D. F. , “Safe Venting of ‘Red Oil’ Runaway Reactions,” Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC, Report No. WSRC-MS-94-0649. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26065625
Chandran, K. , Sahoo, T. K. , Muralidharan, P. , Ganesan, V. , and Srinivasan, T. G. , 2012, “ Calorimetric Studies on the Thermal Decomposition of Tri Isoamyl Phosphate-Nitric Acid Systems,” Thermochim. Acta, 534(2), pp. 9–16.
Smith, J. R. , and Cavin, W. S. , 1994, “Isothermal Heat Measurements of TBP-Nitric Acid Solutions,” Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC, Report No. WSTRC-TR-94-0540. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27043373
Fauske, K. , 1994, “Tributyl Phosphate–Nitric Acid Reaction and Vent Requirements,” Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL, Report No. FAI/94-68.
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References

Ren, F. Y. , and Zhou, Z. X. , 2006, Foreign Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, Atomic Energy Press, Beijing, China, p. 117.
Gray, L. W. , 1978, “ Explosion and Fire During Conversion of Liquid Uranyl Nitrate to Solid Uranium Oxide,” Nucl. Saf., 19(1), pp. 1–91.
McKibben, J. M. , 1975, “Explosion and Fire in the Uranium Trioxide Production Facilities at the Savannah River Plant on February 12,”Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC, Report No. DPSPU 76111.
Durant, W. S. , 1983, “Red Oil Explosions at the Savannah River Plant,” Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC, Report No. DP-MS-83-142. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15052580
James, N. J. , and Sheppard, G. T. , 1991, “ Red Oil Hazards in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 130 (1), pp. 59–69. [CrossRef]
Colven , T. J., Jr., Nichols , G. M. , and Siddall, T. H. , 1953, “TNX Evaporator Incident January 12, 1953,” Savannah River Laboratory, Augusta, GA, Report No. DP-25.
Hyder, M. L. , 1994, “Safe Handling of TBP and Nitrates in the Nuclear Process Industry,” Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC, Report No. WSRC-TR-94-0372. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26032441
Wagner, R. M. , 1953, “Investigation of Explosive Characteristics of PUREX Solvent Decomposition Products (Red Oil),” Hanford Woks, Richland, WA, Report No. HW-27492.
Campbell, D. O. , and Mailen, J. C. , 1988, “The Red-Oil Problem and Its Impact on PUREX Safety,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No. ORNL/TM-10798.
Gordon, P. L. , O'Dell, C. , and Watkin, J. G. , 1994, “ Synthesis and Energetic Content of Red Oil,” J. Hazard. Mater., 39(1), pp. 87–105. [CrossRef]
Usachev, V. N. , and Markov, G. S. , 2003, “ Incidents Caused by Red Oil Phenomena at Semi-Scale and Industrial Radiochemical Units,” Radiochemistry, 45(1), pp. 1–8.
Kumar, S. , Sinha, P. K. , Kamachi Mudali, U. , and Natarajan, R. , 2001, “ Thermal Decomposition of Red-Oil/Nitric Acid Mixtures in Adiabatic Conditions,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 289(2), pp. 545–549. [CrossRef]
Smitha, V. S. , Surianarayanan, M. , Seshadri, H. , Lakshman, N. V. , and Mandal, A. B. , 2012, “ Reactive Thermal Hazards of Tributyl Phosphate With Nitric Acid,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51(21), pp. 7205–7210. [CrossRef]
Das, B. , Mondal, P. , and Kumar, S. , 2011, “ Pressurization Studies in a Sealed Autoclave for Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated TBP and TiAP,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 288(2), pp. 641–643. [CrossRef]
Robinson, R. N. , Gutowski, D. M. , and Yenliscavich, W. , 2003, “Control of Red Oil Explosions in Defense Nuclear Facilities,” Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. DFNSB/Tech-33.
Wilbourn, R. G. , 1977, “Safety Aspects of Solvent Nitration in HTGR Fuel Reprocessing,” General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA, Report No. GA-Al4372. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:9362347
Palit, L. K. , Gaikar, V. G. , Kumar, S. , Mudali, U. K. , and Natarajan, R. , 2012, “ Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate in a Flow Reactor,” ISRN Chem. Eng., 2012(3–4), p. 193862.
Kumar, S. S. , 2009, “ Synthesis of Red-Oil and Related Studies,” Science-52, http://www.igcar.gov.in/pttc/rpg/52-sci.pdf
Barney, G. S. , and Cooper, T. D. , 1994, “The Chemistry of Tributyl Phosphate at Elevated Temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels,” Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA, WHC-EP-0737. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25063512
Paddleford, D. F. , “Safe Venting of ‘Red Oil’ Runaway Reactions,” Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC, Report No. WSRC-MS-94-0649. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26065625
Chandran, K. , Sahoo, T. K. , Muralidharan, P. , Ganesan, V. , and Srinivasan, T. G. , 2012, “ Calorimetric Studies on the Thermal Decomposition of Tri Isoamyl Phosphate-Nitric Acid Systems,” Thermochim. Acta, 534(2), pp. 9–16.
Smith, J. R. , and Cavin, W. S. , 1994, “Isothermal Heat Measurements of TBP-Nitric Acid Solutions,” Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC, Report No. WSTRC-TR-94-0540. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27043373
Fauske, K. , 1994, “Tributyl Phosphate–Nitric Acid Reaction and Vent Requirements,” Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL, Report No. FAI/94-68.

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