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Experimental Study on Melt Coolability Capability of Calandria Vault Water During Severe Accident in Indian PHWRs for Prolonged Duration

[+] Author and Article Information
Sumit V. Prasad

Homi Bhabha National Institute,
Anushaktinagar,
Mumbai 400094, India;
Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400085, India
e-mail: svprasad@barc.gov.in

A. K. Nayak

Homi Bhabha National Institute,
Anushaktinagar,
Mumbai 400094, India;
Reactor Engineering Division,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400085, India
e-mail: arunths@bacr.gov.in

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received June 29, 2017; final manuscript received March 13, 2018; published online May 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jovica R. Riznic.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 4(3), 031014 (May 16, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: NERS-17-1062; doi: 10.1115/1.4039636 History: Received June 29, 2017; Revised March 13, 2018

The present experimental investigation in a scaled facility of an Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) is focused on the heat transfer behavior from the calandria vessel (CV) to the calandria vault during a prolonged severe accident condition in the presence of decay heat. The transient heat transfer simulates the conditions from single phase to boiling in the calandria vault water, partial uncovery of the CV due to boil off of water in the vault, and refill of calandria vault. Molten borosilicate glass was used as the simulant due to its comparable heat transfer characteristics similar to prototypic material. About 60 kg of the molten material was poured into the test section at about 1100 °C. Decay heat in the melt pool was simulated by using high watt cartridge type heaters. The temperature distributions inside the molten pool across the CV wall thickness and vault water were measured for prolonged period which can be divided into various phases, viz., single phase natural convection heat transfer in calandria vault, boiling heat transfer in calandria vault, partial uncovery of CV, and refilling calandria vault. Experimental results showed that once the crust formed, the inner vessel temperature remained very low and vessel integrity maintained. Even boiling of calandria vault water and uncovery of CV had negligible effect on melt, CV, and vault water temperature. The heat transfer coefficients on outer vessel surface were obtained and compared with various conditions.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

PHWR core assembly (cut-away view of reactor)

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Fig. 2

(a) Experiment setup two-dimensional schematic, (b) actual setup, (c) cartridge heater details, and (d) heater locations inside melt

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Fig. 3

Locations of thermocouples in (a) molten pool, (b) circumferential on test section, (c) longitudinal on test section, and (d) water tank

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Fig. 4

Phase I—single phase natural convection heat transfer in calandria vault: (a) melt temperature, (b) crust thickness, (c) inner CV temperature, (d) outer CV temperature, (e) water level, and (f) water temperature

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Fig. 5

Phase II–boiling heat transfer in calandria vault: (a) melt temperature, (b) crust thickness, (c) inner CV temperature, (d) outer CV temperature, (e) water level, and (f) water temperature

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Fig. 6

(a) Start of uncovery and (b) end of uncovery

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Fig. 7

Phase III–partial uncovery of CV: (a) melt temperature, (b) crust thickness, (c) inner CV temperature, (d) outer CV temperature, (e) water level, and (f) water temperature

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Fig. 8

Phase IV–refilling of calandria vault: (a) melt temperature, (b) crust thickness, (c) inner CV temperature, (d) outer CV temperature, (e) water level, and (f) water temperature

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Fig. 9

(a) Temperature across cylindrical vessel thickness of phase I, (b) heat transfer coefficient of phase I, (c) vessel wall heat flux of phase I, (d) temperature across cylindrical vessel thickness of phase II, (e) heat transfer coefficient of phase II, and (f) vessel wall heat flux of phase II

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Fig. 10

Comparison of heat transfer at (a) 0 deg, (b) 45 deg, (c) 90 deg, (d) 135 deg, (e) 180 deg, and (f) averaged

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