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Research Papers

Corrosion Interaction of 9%Cr Ferritic/Martensitic Steels at 450 and 550 °C With Flowing Pb–Bi Eutectic Containing 10−7 Mass % Dissolved Oxygen

[+] Author and Article Information
Valentyn Tsisar

Institute for Applied Materials—Applied
Materials Physics (IAM-AWP),
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,
Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
e-mail: valentyn.tsisar@kit.edu

Carsten Schroer

Institute for Applied Materials—Applied
Materials Physics (IAM-AWP),
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,
Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
e-mail: carsten.schroer@kit.edu

Olaf Wedemeyer

Institute for Applied Materials—Applied
Materials Physics (IAM-AWP),
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,
Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
e-mail: olaf.wedemeyer@kit.edu

Aleksandr Skrypnik

Institute for Applied Materials—Applied
Materials Physics (IAM-AWP),
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,
Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
e-mail: aleksandr.skrypnik@kit.edu

Jürgen Konys

Institute for Applied Materials—Applied
Materials Physics (IAM-AWP),
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1,
Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
e-mail: juergen.konys@kit.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 28, 2017; final manuscript received August 30, 2018; published online May 3, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Valentina Angelici Avincola.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(3), 031201 (May 03, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: NERS-17-1297; doi: 10.1115/1.4041432 History: Received November 28, 2017; Revised August 30, 2018

Corrosion behavior of 9%Cr F/M P92, E911, and EUROFER steels was investigated in flowing (2 m/s) Pb–Bi with 10−7 mass % O at 450 and 550 °C for up to 8766 and 2011 h, respectively. The steels show mixed corrosion modes simultaneously revealing protective scale formation, accelerated oxidation, and solution-based attack. At 450 °C, the accelerated oxidation resulted in a metal recession averaging 6 μm (± 2 μm) after ∼ 8766 h, while local solution-based corrosion attack ranged from ∼40 to 350 μm. At 550 °C, the accelerated oxidation resulted in a metal recession of about 10 μm (± 2 μm) after ∼ 2011 h. Solution-based corrosion attack appears more regularly at 550 °C, with a maximum depth ranged from ∼90 to 1000 μm. The incubation time for the solution based attack at 450 °C is 500–2000 h and < 300 h at 550 °C.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The microstructure of P92, E911, and EUROFER steels (T-S orientation, LO) after etching showing the structure of tempered martensite

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Fig. 2

Experimental parameters of corrosion test at 450 °C (a) and 550 °C (b)

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Fig. 3

Corrosion appearances (SE) observed on the surface of EUROFER steel after exposure at 450 °C to flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing 10-7 mass % O for 500 h. (a) a surface of steel covered by Cr-based oxide film (incubation period), (b) a surface covered by Fe-Cr-O spinel layer, and (c) a surface covered by bi-layer scale magnetite/Fe-Cr spinel.

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Fig. 4

Comparison of corrosion appearance (SE) on the surface of EUROFER steel after testat 450 °C for ∼ 2000 h in flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing (a), (b) 10-7 mass % O and (c), (d)10-5-10-7 mass % O. (a)–(c) cross section and (d) surface.

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Fig. 5

Corrosion appearance (SE) on the surface of EUROFER steel after the test at 450 °C for (a), (b) 5015 h and (c) 8766 h in flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing 10-7 mass % O, (c) is accompanied with EDX spectra (d)–(f) obtained from specified in Fig.5(c) spots (d), (e), and (f)

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Fig. 6

Experimental data for (a) metal recession with a confidence interval and (b) maximum depth of solution-based attack measured on F/M steels after exposure at 450 °C to flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) with 10-7 mass % O depending on time

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Fig. 7

Experimental data with parabolic fits for Fe–Cr spinel formed on the surface of F/M steels at 450 °C in flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) with 10-7 mass% O depending on time

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Fig. 8

Corrosion appearances (SE) on the surface of F/M steels after the test at 550 °C in flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing 10-7mass% O for 288 h

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Fig. 9

Corrosion appearances (SE) on the surface of F/M steels after the test at 550 °C inflowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing 10-7 mass % O for 715 h (a)–(c). (d), (e) EDX analyses performed along the indicated line across internal oxidation zone (d) and Fe-Cr spinel (e).

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Fig. 10

Secondary electrons micrograph showing the structure of inner oxidation zone (a). (b)–(d) EDX spectra obtained from spots (a), (b), and (c) specified in Fig. 10(a).

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Fig. 11

Local pit-type solution-based corrosion attack (SE) observed on the surface of F/M steels after the test at 550 °C in flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing 10-7 mass % O for 715 h. (a) General view of pit-type corrosion attack and (b) detailed view of pit-type corrosion attack.

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Fig. 12

Severe material ablation (SE) caused by solution-based corrosion attack on the surface of F/M steels after the test at 550 °C inflowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing 10-7 mass % O for 1007 h

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Fig. 13

The complete transverse cross section (LO) of samples of F/M steels after the test at 550 °C in flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing 10-7 mass % O for 2011 h

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Fig. 14

General and local corrosion trends (SE) observed on the surface of F/M steels after the test at 550 °C inflowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) containing 10-7 mass % O for 2011 h

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Fig. 15

The detailed morphological appearance (SE) of steel/solidified LBE interface accompanied by EDX analysis along the specified line in the zone of maximum corrosion attack on EUROFER steel after the test at 550 °C in flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) with 10-7 mass% O for 2011 h

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Fig. 16

Experimental data for (a) metal recession with a confidence interval and (b) maximum depth of solution-based attack measured on F/M steels after exposure at 550 °C to flowing LBE (∼ 2 m/s) with 10-7 mass % O depending on time

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Fig. 17

Experimental data with parabolic fits for Fe-Cr spinel formed on the surface of F/M steels at 550 °C in flowing LBE (∼2 m/s) with 10-7 mass % O depending on time

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