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Special Section on Research Center Řež: Nuclear-Engineering Activities in 2018

Study of Crack Initiation of 15-15Ti Austenitic Steel in Liquid PbBi

[+] Author and Article Information
Anna Hojna

Centrum Výzkumu Rez s.r.o.,
UJV Group, Rez 130,
Husinec 25068, Czech Republic
e-mail: anna.hojna@cvrez.cz

Fosca Di Gabriele

Centrum Výzkumu Rez s.r.o.,
UJV Group, Rez 130,
Husinec 25068, Czech Republic
e-mail: Fosca.Di_Gabriele@cvrez.cz

Michal Chocholousek

Centrum Výzkumu Rez s.r.o.,
UJV Group, Rez 130,
Husinec 25068, Czech Republic
e-mail: michal.chocholousek@cvrez.cz

Zbynek Spirit

Centrum Výzkumu Rez s.r.o.,
UJV Group, Rez 130,
Husinec 25068, Czech Republic
e-mail: zbynek.spirit@cvrez.cz

Lucia Rozumova

Centrum Výzkumu Rez s.r.o.,
UJV Group, Rez 130,
Husinec 25068, Czech Republic
e-mail: lucia.rozumova@cvrez.cz

Manuscript received May 21, 2018; final manuscript received September 21, 2018; published online April 16, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Martin Schulc.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(3), 030902 (Apr 16, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: NERS-18-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4041564 History: Received May 21, 2018; Revised September 21, 2018

The austenitic steel 15-15Ti is being considered as one of the candidate materials for internal structural components of future heavy liquid metal (HLM) nuclear systems. This work studies the steel compatibility with liquid PbBi. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests of tapered specimens were used to study sensitivity to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) and crack initiation. The taper creates a variation of stress along the gauge length which allows the identification of the stress and strain for the crack appearance. Testing was performed in air and in PbBi with 10−6 to 10−12 wt  % oxygen content at 300 °C. Post-test observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) highlighted the crack morphology. An evaluation of the environmental effect on the crack initiation is presented.

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References

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Gorse, D. , Auger, T. , Vogt, J.-B. , Proriol Serre, I. , Weisenburger, A. , Gessi, A. , Agostini, P. , Fazio, C. , Hojna, A. , Di Gabriele, F. , Van Den Bosch, J. , Coen, G. , and Almazouzi, A. , 2011, “ Influence of Liquid Lead and Lead–Bismuth Eutectic on Tensile, Fatigue and Creep Properties of Ferritic/Martensitic and Austenitic Steels for Transmutation Systems,” J. Nucl. Mater., 415(3), pp. 284–292. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Flat tapered specimen

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Fig. 2

Stress–displacement curves of CERTs of the 15-15Ti tapered specimens in air (dotted line) and PbBi (double and full lines) at 300 °C. Data refers to minimum cross section where the applied strain rate is 1 × 10−6 s−1. Oxygen content in wt  % in PbBi is referred in brackets.

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Fig. 3

(a) Specimen I3 loaded in air up to maximum, ground surface. Small cracks around Ti-rich precipitates, (b) in the necking area and (c) and (d) 3.5 mm from the minimum cross section.

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Fig. 4

Specimen I3 loaded in air up to maximum, polished surface. Fracture through the Ti-rich precipitates: (a) and (b) in the minimum cross section and (c) 6 mm from the minimum one.

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Fig. 5

Specimen I4 loaded up to maximum load in PbBi of 4 × 10−8 wt  % O, ground surface: (a) general view of the necking region, (b) numerous particles of the surface with and without microcracks, (c) superficial cracks close to Ti-rich precipitates in the necking area, and (d) microcracks in 4 mm from the minimum cross section

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Fig. 6

Specimen I4 loaded up to maximum load in PbBi of 4 × 10−8 wt  % O, polished surface: (a) general view of the necking region, (b) interaction of the slip lines with Ti-rich precipitates in the necking, and (c) a microcrack initiating through particle in 5.2 mm from the minimum cross section

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Fig. 7

Specimen I10 loaded over the yielding load in PbBi of 1 × 10−6 wt  % O: (a) cracking from cluster of particles on ground surface in 2.4 mm from the minimum cross section and (b) particle and slip lines on polished surface in the minimum cross section

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Fig. 8

Specimen I9 loaded over the yielding load in PbBi of 1 × 10−8 wt  % O: (a) crack initiating in 2.2 mm from the minimum cross section on ground surface and (b) broken and deformed particle in the minimum on polished surface

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Fig. 9

Specimen I7 loaded to rupture in PbBi of 2 × 10−12 wt  % O ground surface: (a) close to fracture, (b) in 6.3 from fracture; cross sections, (c) at 2.2 mm, and (d) 6.5 mm from fracture

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Fig. 10

Specimen loaded to rupture in PbBi of 2 × 10−12 wt  % O, polished surface: (a) close to fracture, (b) ground surface in 5.9 from fracture; the shallow cracks in cross section, (c) at 4.4 mm, and (d) at 4.8 mm from fracture

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Fig. 11

Fracture surface of specimen I7: (a) transition from deformed polished surface to fracture surface showing shear and dimple ductile fracture patterns and (b) a detail of a surface crack showing features of intensive ductile straining

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