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SPECIAL SECTION: SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL YOUTH NUCLEAR CONGRESS 2018 - 26TH WIN GLOBAL ANNUAL CONFERENCE

Preliminary Investigations of the Feasibility of In-Vessel Melt Retention Strategies for a Small Modular Reactor Concept

[+] Author and Article Information
Lena Andriolo

EDF,
7 boulevard Gaspard Monge,
Palaiseau 91120, France
e-mail: lena.andriolo@edf.fr

Clément Meriot

EDF,
7 boulevard Gaspard Monge,
Palaiseau 91120, France
e-mail: clement.meriot@edf.fr

Nikolai Bakouta

EDF,
7 boulevard Gaspard Monge,
Palaiseau 91120, France
e-mail: nikolai.bakouta@edf.fr

Manuscript received July 31, 2018; final manuscript received December 14, 2018; published online March 15, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Fidelma Di Lema.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(2), 020905 (Mar 15, 2019) (7 pages) Paper No: NERS-18-1060; doi: 10.1115/1.4042360 History: Received July 31, 2018; Revised December 14, 2018

The study presented in this paper is part of the technological surveillance performed at the Electricité De France (EDF) Research and Development (R&D) Center, in the Pericles department, and investigates the feasibility of modeling in-vessel melt retention (IVMR) phenomena for small modular reactors (SMR) with the modular accident analysis program version 5 in its EDF proprietary version (MAAP5_EDF), applying conservative hypotheses, such as constant decay heat after corium relocation to the lower head. The study takes advantage of a corium stratification model in the lower head of the vessel, developed by EDF R&D for large-sized prospective pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The analysis is based on a stepwise approach in order to evaluate the impact of various effects during IVMR conditions. First, an analytical calculation is performed in order to establish a reference case to which the MAAP5_EDF code results are compared. In a second step, the impact of the lower head geometry, vessel steel ablation, and subsequent relocation on the heat flux has been analyzed for cases where heat dissipation through radiation is neglected (in first approximation). Finally, the impact of heat losses through radiation as well as the crust formation around the pool has been assessed. The results demonstrate the applicability of the MAAP5_EDF code to SMRs, with heat fluxes lower than 1.1 MW/m2 for relevant cases, and identify modeling improvements.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Topics: Vessels
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References

IAEA, 2013, “Nuclear Reactor Technology Assessment for Near Term Deployment,” IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.10, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
IAEA, 2018, Advances in Small Modular Reactor Technology Development—A Supplement to: IAEA Advanced Reactors Information System (ARIS), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
Fauske & Associates, LLC, 2019, “MAAP—Modular Analysis Program,” Fauske & Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL, accessed Jan. 16, 2019, http://www.fauske.com/nuclear/maap-modular-accident-analysis-program
Bakouta, N. , Tellier, R. L. , and Saas, L. , 2015, “ Assessment of Advanced Corium-in-Lower-Head Models in MAAP and PROCOR Codes,” European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research, Marseille, France, Mar. 24–26, Paper No. 003.
Westinghouse, 2019, “AP 1000 Nuclear Power Plant design,” Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA, accessed Jan. 16, 2019, http://www.westinghousenuclear.com/New-Plants/AP1000-PWR/Overview
Granovsky, V. , 2016, “ Experimental Studies for In-Vessel Melt Retention (MASCA, METCOR, CORDEB Projects),” IVR Workshop, Aix-en-Provence, France, June 6–7.
Sehgal, B. R. , ed., 2012, Nuclear Safety in Light Water Reactors: Severe Accident Phenomenology, Academic Press, New York, p. 714.
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Mériot, C. , and Barjot, F. , “ Preliminary Neutronic Design of a Small Modular Reactor Core,” International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNCWiN18), Bariloche, Argentina, Mar. 11–17. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327597980_Preliminary_neutronic_design_of_a_Small_Modular_Reactor_core
Jacquemain, D. , ed., 2015, Nuclear Power Reactor Core Melt Accidents, IRSN, EDP Sciences, Waltham, MA, p. 434.
Ma, W. , Yuan, Y. , and Sehgal, B. R. , 2016, “ In-Vessel Melt Retention Pressurized Water Reactors: Historical Review and Future Research Needs,” Engineering, 2(1), pp. 103–111. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Phenomena observed during IVMR [11]

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Fig. 2

Modeling of corium in the vessel lower head with the MAAP5_EDF code [4]. T:temperature(K).

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Fig. 3

Evolution of the decay heat power after SCRAM versus time for a preliminary pressurized water SMR design (540 MWth). Outcome of the APOLLO2/DARWIN2.3.1 calculation.

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Fig. 4

Two phase corium pool power distributions. OX: OXide, LM: Light Metal. Qres: decay power (MW); Qup power transmitted through the upper surface (MW), Qs: power transmitted laterally (MW). Htotal: total height of the pool (m), R: radius (m), Smetal: metal surface (m2).

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Fig. 5

Temperature evolution in pool (case 4). Ox: oxide, LM: light metal. Blue square: zone where oscillations in oxide layer temperature occur.

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Fig. 6

Axial distribution of fluxes in vessel wall, case 5. Elevation 0 corresponds to the end of the cylindrical part of the vessel.

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Fig. 7

Evolution of ingoing and outgoing power versus time, case 5

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