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Special Section on Research Center Řež: Nuclear-Engineering Activities in 2018

Preliminary Experiments While Designing a Cold Crucible for Metal Melting

[+] Author and Article Information
David Rot

Department of Electrical Power Engineering and
Environmental Engineering,
Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
University of West Bohemia,
Univerzitni 8,
Pilsen 306 14, Czech Republic
e-mail: rot@kee.zcu.cz

Jakub Jiřinec

Department of Electrical Power Engineering and
Environmental Engineering,
Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
University of West Bohemia,
Univerzitni 8,
Pilsen 306 14, Czech Republic
e-mail: jjirinec@kee.zcu.cz

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 22, 2018; final manuscript received March 4, 2019; published online April 16, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Michal Kostal.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(3), 030911 (Apr 16, 2019) (7 pages) Paper No: NERS-18-1121; doi: 10.1115/1.4043199 History: Received November 22, 2018; Revised March 04, 2019

This article deals with issues arising during the design and production of a cold crucible (CC) for melting metals and alloys using electromagnetic induction. The article deals particularly with the results from tests and numerical simulations for designing the CC. The heat fluxes from different metals and their alloys to two different CCs and one calorimeter were measured during the tests. The required magnetohydrodynamic effects on the melted load were verified, and related (independent) electrical and thermal quantities were measured. The dependent electric parameters (R, L, Z) were measured on the inductor and on the primary side of the high frequency transformer. The experiments were numerically simulated first, and the experimental and simulated results were then compared. The final part of the article contains the final design of the CC. The final CC was tested for the transfer of energy from the inductor into a load placed inside the CC and the required magnetohydrodynamic effects on the melted load inside the CC were partly verified too.

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References

Rot, D. , Kozeny, J. , Jirinec, S. , Jirinec, J. , Podhrazky, A. , and Poznyak, I. , 2017, “ Induction Melting of Aluminium Oxide in the Cold Crucible,” 18th International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering (EPE), Ostrava, Czech Republic, May 17–19, pp. 1–4.
Jirinec, S. , and Rot, D. , 2017, Cold Crucible HFG160, Electroscope, Vol. 1, University of West Bohemia, Plzen, Czech Republic, p. 5.
Mühlbauer, A. , 2008, “ History of Induction Heating and Melting,” Vulkan, Essen, Germany, p. 202.
Jirinec, S. , and Rot, D. , 2017, “ Data Acquisition System for Cold Crucible,” Trans. Electr. Eng., 6(1), pp. 28–31. [CrossRef]
Rot, D. , Jirinec, J. , Jirinec, S. , and Kozeny, J. , 2016, “ Advanced Measurements for Analysis and Data Acquisition From the Cold Crucible,” 17th International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering (EPE), Prague, Czech Republic, May 16–18, pp. 1–4.
Ansys, 2018, “ANSYS® EM Academic Research, Release 18.1, Help System Eddy Current,” Ansys, Canonsburg, PA.
Ansys, 2018, “ANSYS® Academic Research, Release 18.1, Help System Heat Transient,” Ansys, Canonsburg, PA.
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Nemkov, V. , Goldstein, R. , Kreter, K. , and Jackowski, J. , 2013, “ Modeling and Optimization of Cold Crucible Furnaces for Melting Metals,” 13th International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (HES), Padua, Italy, May 21–25, p. 9. https://fluxtrol.com/modeling-and-optimization-of-cold-crucible-furnaces-for-melting-metals
Stefanovsky, S. V. , Ptashkin, A. G. , Knyazev, I. A. , Stefanovsky, O. I. , Yudintsev, S. V. , Nikonov, B. S. , and Myasoedov, B. F. , 2019, “ Cold Crucible Melting and Characterization of Titanate-Zirconate Pyrochlore as a Potential Rare Earth/Actinide Waste Form,” Ceram. Int., 45(3), pp. 3518–3521. [CrossRef]
Przylucki, R. , Golak, S. , Bulinski, P. , Smolka, J. , Palacz, M. , Siwiec, G. , Lipart, J. , and Blacha, L. , 2018, “ Analysis of the Impact of Modification of Cold Crucible Design on the Efficiency of the Cold Crucible Induction Furnace,” Eighth International Scientific Colloquium on Modeling for Materials, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Riga, Latvia, Sept. 21–22, pp. 75–80. http://www.modlab.lv/publications/mmp2017/papers/21-3(MAI)-4(Przylucki).pdf

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Required form of the melt inside the model hybrid CC (left) and melt inside the real hybrid CC (right)

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Fig. 2

Real calorimeter upper side (left), bottom side without the bottom plate (right), inner diameter is 0.05 ± 0.001 m, outer diameter is 0.08 ± 0.001 m and inner height is 0.02 ± 0.001 m. Dimensions in this figure are in mm and uncertainty of measurement is  ± 0.001 m.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Calorimeter with steel ingot inside, the temperature on the top of the ingot is about the melting point (photos and IR photos). The measured heat flux from the ingot to the calorimeter was in this case 1,000,000 ± 100,000 W/m2. Diameter of the ingot was 0.032 ± 0.001 m.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Real hybrid CCi22 (left), model of copper part and plastic part (right). Inner diameter of this hybrid CC is 0.022 ± 0.001 m and effective inner height is 0.05 ± 0.001 m. Dimensions in this figure are in mm and uncertainty of measurement is  ± 0.001 m.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Real cone of SnCu after mini explosion, bottom diameter is approximately 0.024 m and height approximately 0.027 m

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Fig. 6

Model of final CCi45 inside the inductor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Real final CCi45 inner diameter of this CC is 0.045 ± 0.0002 m and effective inner height is 0.082 ± 0.0002 m. Dimensions in this figure are in mm and uncertainty of measurement is ±0.0002 m.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Real final CC with steel ingot inside (ingot diameter is 0.032 ± 0.001 m, height is 0.046 ± 0.001 m), the temperature on the top of the ingot is about the melting point (bottom left), real final CC with melt inside (top right), model of final CC with steel ingot inside (top left), IR photo of real final CC with steel ingot inside (bottom right). In this case, an eight coil inductor with inner diameter 0.045 ± 0.001 m was used, inductor wire diameter was 0.01 ± 0.0002 m, and the gap between coils was 0.002 ± 0.0005 m.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Calculated efficiency by induction heating of the titanium load inside CCi45 in relation to the load height by fixed load radius

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Calculated efficiency by induction heating of the titanium load without CC in relation to the load height by fixed load radius

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Calculated efficiency by induction heating of the titanium load inside CCi45 in relation to the load radius by fixed load height

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Calculated efficiency by induction heating of the titanium load without CC in relation to the load radius by fixed load height

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