Special Section on Research Center Řež: Nuclear-Engineering Activities in 2018

Estimation of Tritium and Dust Source Term in European DEMOnstration Fusion Reactor During Accident Scenarios

[+] Author and Article Information
Guido Mazzini

Centrum Vyzkumu Rez (CVRez),
Hlavní 130,
Husinec–Řež 250 68, Czech Republic
e-mail: guido.mazzini@cvrez.cz

Tadas Kaliatka

Lithuanian Energy Institute,
Breslaujos g. 3,
Kaunas 44403, Lithuania

Maria Teresa Porfiri

Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie,
l'energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile
Via Enrico Fermi, 45,
Frascati, Roma 00044, Italy

Manuscript received October 10, 2018; final manuscript received March 29, 2019; published online May 29, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Martin Schulc.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(3), 030916 (May 29, 2019) (7 pages) Paper No: NERS-18-1100; doi: 10.1115/1.4043379 History: Received October 10, 2018; Revised March 29, 2019

The safety features of the future nuclear fusion reactors are one of the key issues for their attractiveness if compared with the fission plants. In fusion devices, accidents with high release of radioactive materials have low probabilities because the most part of abnormal transients lead to passive plasma shutdown. It does not mean that radiological source terms such tritium and activated dust are not generated and released, but their inventory does not increase during abnormal events. Therefore, the source term inventory has to be assessed during normal operation and traced when accidents occur. For this reason, a study for qualification and quantification of the tritium and dust source term (DTS) was established with the aim to understand their production, deposition, and penetration in the vacuum vessel (VV) and in the breeding blanket (BB). The main concern is source term release during the main accident scenarios to comply with a future licensing process. In case of abnormal event scenarios, the source term inventory involved in the release changes and requires a different confinement approach and mitigation. For the estimation of the source term in the DEMOnstration Fusion Power Station (DEMO), a methodology was developed. The methodology scales the tritium and DTS inside the VV from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the European Power Plant Conceptual Study, and reports the tritium generated inside the breeder blanket from data quantified in other studies for DEMO. In this article, the methodology was updated and tritium and DTS for DEMO 2016 design were estimated. Moreover, the tritium and dust release pathways were highlighted according to different accidental scenarios. These results were obtained for all blanket concepts, which are analyzing in the ongoing DEMO EUROFusion project. The values estimated in this article will be used in the safety analyses to evaluate releases or to quantify the operational limits starting from values postulated in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Simplified scheme of DEMO fusion power plant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematics of DEMO (a) HCPB, (b) HCLL, (c) WCLL, and (d) DCLL [21] (Reproduced courtesy of L.V. Boccaccini)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of the developed methodology

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscope image showing layered deposit and metallic droplet encapsulated with over laying deposit [29]



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