An implantable cardiac pacemaker is used to modify and treat irregular heartbeats [1] and invented in 1958 [2]. Devices have no fixation or fixed to the heart wall. No fixation leads lay in the bottom of heart cavities, while fixed leads have tines (passive) or a helix screw (active) to attach to the heart. Lead geometries and material properties vary between companies, with geometric sizing based primarily on the internal mechanics of the lead.

Finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and bench-top simulations are used to evaluate cardiac leads. These simulations analyze only one lead and struggle to compare and test variations in lead designs. Advanced computational resources can run many computer simulations of anatomical environments, however model complexity increases the time to run each simulation.

To address this issue, we present a simplified parameterized design space for cardiac pacemaker leads in the right atrium. This information will be used to run multiple simulations of leads in blood flow, for visualization in a single virtual reality (VR) environment and allow the designer to iterate through many design variations (See Figure 1).

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