Hydraulic energy is constructed from two different kinds hydraulic energies. One is the singled irreversible kinetic hydraulic energy that acts horizontal direction. It produces mass weight flow rate. The other is the un-kinetic reversible potential energy. Potential energy is stored on the fluid particle in the form of coupled (or twined) real and imaginary energies. Typical of real energy is potential energy, which is equivalent to pump and water turbine heads. It is caused by the real gravitational acceleration and directs vertical downward. Real potential head is balanced with the imaginary force, which is caused by the imaginary acceleration whose magnitude is equivalent to real gravitational acceleration but its acting direction is opposed to that, therefore, vertical upward. Therefore, to produce the higher real potential pump head that directs vertical downward, the imaginary centrifugal force, whose acting direction is opposed to real potential head, has to be produced and act on the fluid particle vertical upward as much by the impelling action in the rotating flow passage of centrifugal pump.
An Investigation on Energy Transfer Mechanism Caused in Rotating Flow Passage of Turbomachinery and Practical Performance Characteristic Curve
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Tanaka, T. "An Investigation on Energy Transfer Mechanism Caused in Rotating Flow Passage of Turbomachinery and Practical Performance Characteristic Curve." Proceedings of the ASME 8th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis. Volume 2: Automotive Systems, Bioengineering and Biomedical Technology, Fluids Engineering, Maintenance Engineering and Non-Destructive Evaluation, and Nanotechnology. Torino, Italy. July 4–7, 2006. pp. 733-742. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ESDA2006-95441
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