As key heat transfer system in small and medium size pressurized water reactors, once-through steam generators are important parts of energy exchange between primary and secondary circuits, and are very important for the design and operation of reactors. However, two-phase flow and heat transfer in once-through steam generators are very complicated. When a reactor experience power rising and descending transient, the heat removal of once-through steam generator, the flow rate, the inlet fluid temperature and outlet steam temperature will all change accordingly. Especially when a reactor is running at a low power, the flow rate of the secondary side of OTSG is extremely small and the single-phase region of the secondary side of OTSGs is also too small. The two-phase flow instability may occur, which has a serious impact on reactor operation and safety. So, a reasonable power-up and power-down transient scheme is required to ensure operational stability when starting up and shutting down a reactor.
RELAP5/MOD4.0 is a commercial software developed by Innovative System Software, LCC for transient analysis of light water reactors (LWR). After years of development and improvement, RELAP5 has been a basic tool for analysis and calculation of various simulators of nuclear power plants. Scholars all over the world have carried out a large number of analysis of two-phase flow stability using RELAP5, and the results are reliable.
This paper takes once through steam generators with given structural parameters as the research object, and uses RELAP5 as the calculation tool. The influencing factors of flow instability are discussed in this paper, and the operating parameters of the fluid on the primary and secondary sides are designed to satisfy the flow stability under different powers. And a set of power-up and power-down schemes for stable operation is proposed.