An operation states observer for a wheelchair system is extended to three dimensions in this paper. This new observer incorporates a three-axis accelerometer allowing a user to estimate more precise information on terrain condition. To design this observer, first, a model dynamics illustrating the two-dimensional relationship between the gravity and the motion of a wheelchair on a slope is derived. Experimental results verify our derivation of equations. Then, the dynamics is simplified and used in the design of the extended observer. Since the dynamics itself and the output of that have nonlinear characteristics, the extended kalman filter design algorithm is employed. By simulation, the stability and effectiveness of the application is verified.

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