This study describes the development of a multi-body foot contact model consisting of spherical volumetric models for the surfaces of the foot. The developed model is two-dimensional, and consists of two segments, the hind-foot, mid-foot, and forefoot as one rigid body and the phalanges collectively as the second rigid body. The model has four degrees of freedom: ankle x, y, hind-foot orientation, and metatarsal joint angle. Both ankle and metatarsal joints are assumed to be revolute joints. Three different types of contact elements are targeted: Kelvin-Voigt, linear volumetric, and nonlinear volumetric. The models are kinematically driven at the ankle and the metatarsal joints, and simulated horizontal and vertical ground reaction forces as well as center of pressure location are compared against the measured quantities within a complete human gait cycle. The hyper-volumetric foot contact model was found to be a suitable choice for foot/ground interaction modelling within human gait simulations.

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