In this paper a methodology for closed loop simulation of the human cardiovascular system is described. It includes a functional heart model and a closed loop circulatory system. Using this model a range of physiological and patophysical phenomena can be studied, such as valvar regurgitation (valve leakage), valvar stenosis, congenital cardiac malformations i.e. coarctation of the aorta and the circulation in univentricular hearts. The model can be extended to accommodate detail descriptions of the subsystems. In this paper, however, a very basic model is shown to highlight the basic principles of cardio vascular system simulation.

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