An improved and detailed 3-D FE model of human cervical spine was created using digitized geometric measurement. The model was validated with the in-vivo studies of Moroney, Panjabi and Fuller. Clinical instability of the spine for two cases involving flexion and compression loading (simulating injuries in motorcycle vaulting, football and diving accidents) were analyzed. The instability was based on the check list of Panjabi and White. It was determined that flexion moment of 10 Nm or compressive force of 500N result in the onset of clinical instability.

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