The establishment of the left-right asymmetry during the development of vertebrates is a fascinating phenomenon that is still not fully understood. Extensive research suggests that in mice a small triangular cavity, called the ventral node, is responsible for breaking the left-right symmetry. A mouse node is ∼ 50 microns across and ∼10 microns deep. The surface of the nodal pit is covered by 200–300 monocilia whose rotation is responsible for the leftward flow in the node. We developed a simplified method of modeling the extraembryonic fluid flow and morphogen transport in a nodal cavity. We simplified the problem as flow in a 2D cavity; the effect of rotating cilia was modeled by specifying a constant vorticity at the edge of the ciliated layer. We also developed approximate solutions for morphogen transport in the nodal pit. The solutions were obtained utilizing the proper generalized decomposition method. We compared our approximate solutions with the results of numerical simulation of flow caused by the rotation of 81 cilia, and obtained reasonable agreement in most of the flow domain. We discuss locations where agreement is less accurate. The obtained semi-analytical solutions enable a quick analysis of flow and morphogen distribution in a nodal pit.
Modeling Leftward Flow in the Embryonic Node
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Kuznetsov, AV, Blinov, DG, Avramenko, AA, Shevchuk, IV, Tyrinov, AI, & Kuznetsov, IA. "Modeling Leftward Flow in the Embryonic Node." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 7B: Fluids Engineering Systems and Technologies. San Diego, California, USA. November 15–21, 2013. V07BT08A003. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2013-62503
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