Ventilation of wide spaces often requires a correct mixing of a jet in a cross flow. The present paper describes the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to model the interaction of a free stream jet with a cross flow, taking into account temperature gradients between the two streams. The model uses the finite volume technique for solving the conservation equations of fluid: mass, momentum and energy. Buoyancy is described by the Boussinesq approximation. The convergence of the solution required a high mesh refinement in the region of flow interaction.
The data were compared with experimental results obtained in a subsonic wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out along the 4.0 m long test section of a 1.4×0.8 low speed wind tunnel. The jets were injected at 90° through orifices 25 mm in diameter drawn from a plenum either at the same or higher temperature the free stream. The jet velocity to the free stream velocity ratio was set at 8 for a single jet and between 4 and 16 for multiple injections. Data include velocity, pressure and temperature.
The results show that the injection of relatively small cross-flow rates can cause the development of large regions of interaction with the main flux, accompanied by the creation of large scale flow structures, which contribute effectively to rapid mixing of the two streams.
A CFD simulation of temperature showed that a jet 30 diameters downstream (30D) is an extension of the plume covering almost half of the cross section and a good homogeneity, then the extension of the plume 120D which covers almost the entire cross section and an optimum mixing occurs.
The CFD simulation temperature of 13 jets showed that a toroidal extension of the plume and a good homogenization as early as 30D downstream of the injection point, occurs.