Abstract

Lithium-ion batteries are a proven energy storage device which continue to gain market share across a wide range of applications. However, the safety of these devices is still a major factor in many applications. In failures which result in thermal runaway, a series of chemical reactions are initiated which produce a large quantity of gas and heat. The pressure and temperature inside the battery rise sharply and may cause fire or explosion. The lithium-ion battery vent cap is a key safety device used in 18650 format cells to prevent an energetic failure of the metal casing. In this paper, the cap structure and venting parameters of three cap designs are analyzed. The venting parameters investigated were the open flow area and discharge coefficient. Open flow area through different components of the cap assembly were measured using 3D x-ray scans. A new experimental apparatus was used to measure mass flowrate and pressure ratio across the battery cap, which allowed calculation of discharge coefficient. Results indicate that discharge coefficients follow the same trend as a sharp-edged orifice, albeit at a reduced magnitude due to the more tortuous flow path. A semi-empirical model is proposed to simulate mass flow through the battery cap.

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