Three-dimensional behavior of ice crystals and cells during the freezing and thawing of biological tissues was investigated microscopically in real time by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and a fluorescent dye, acridine orange (AO). Fresh tender meat (2nd pectoral muscles) of chicken was stained with the AO in physiological saline, and then frozen and thawed in a uniform temperature under two different thermal protocols: a) slow-cooling and rapid-warming and b) rapid-cooling and rapid-warming. The CLSM noninvasively produced tomograms of the tissues to clarify the pattern of freezing, morphology of ice crystals in the tissues, and the interaction between ice crystals and cells.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.