In this paper, we developed two degree of freedom shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator using SMA springs. This module can be applied easily to various applications: device holder, artificial finger, grippes, fish robot, and many other biologically inspired applications, where small size and small wight of the actuator are very critical. This actuator is composed of two sets of SMA springs: one set is for the rotation around the X axis (roll angle) and the other set is for the rotation around the Y axis (pitch angle). Each set contains two elements: one SMA spring and one antagonistic SMA spring. We used an inertia sensor (IMU) and two potentiometers for angles feedback.
The SMA actuator system is modeled mathematically and then tested experimentally in open-loop and closed-loop control. We designed and experimentally tuned a proportional integrator derivative (PID) controller to follow the set points and to track the desired trajectories. The main goal of the presented controller is to control roll and pitch angles simultaneously in order to satisfy set points and trajectories within the work space. The experimental results show that the two degree of freedom SMA actuator system follows the desired setpoints with acceptable rise time and overshoot.