Monte Carlo model is used to study the roughness effects on lattice thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires. Based on the Matthiessen’s rule, a roughness influence coefficient is adopted to amend the relaxation time. Individual silicon nanowires growing by vapour-liquid-solid method are different from those making by aqueous electroless etching method in the surface roughness, which are both simulated over a temperature range of 15–315K with various equivalent diameters. The results are close to the laboratory data, proving the validity of the MC model and showing the effects of surface roughness on thermal transport decrease with the increasing of equivalent diameter.

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