As we all know, the COVID-19 pandemic brought a great challenge to manufacturing industry, especially for some traditional and unstable manufacturing systems. It reminds us that intelligent manufacturing certainly will play a key role in the future. Dynamic shop scheduling is also an inevitable hot topic in intelligent manufacturing. However, traditional dynamic scheduling is a kind of passive scheduling mode which takes measures to adjust disturbed scheduling processes after the occurrence of dynamic events. It is difficult to ensure the stability of production because of lack of proactivity. To overcome these shortcomings, manufacturing big data and data technologies as the core driving force of intelligent manufacturing will be used to guide production. Thus, a data-driven proactive scheduling approach is proposed to deal with the dynamic events, especially for machine breakdown. In this paper, the overall procedure of the proposed approach is introduced. More specifically, we first use collected manufacturing data to predict the occurrence of machine breakdowns and provide reliable input for dynamic scheduling. Then a proactive scheduling model is constructed for the hybrid flow shop problem, and an intelligent optimization algorithm is used to solve the problem to realize proactive scheduling. Finally, we design comparative experiments with two traditional rescheduling strategies to verify the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approach.