The microstructure of articular cartilage could be divided into four distinct zones: the superficial zone, middle zone, deep zone, and calcified cartilage zone. It is believed that the superficial zone of articular cartilage has a lower permeability, which may be related to the close packing of the collagen fibrils resulting in a system of much narrow channels which offer a greater resistance to flow [1]. This parametric study investigated the influence of permeability of the superficial zone on the behavior of cartilage stress relaxation and creep of human ankle joint using a 2D biphasic poroelastic finite element model (FEM) that was created from a living human ankle joint.

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