Gender differences have been identified in a variety of spine-related disorders including rates of thoracic sagittal plane scoliosis and rates of whiplash associated disorder following automotive rear impacts. For example, female gender was identified as a main risk factor for thoracic curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis . Clinical and epidemiological studies have identified females to be more susceptible to whiplash injury . However, biomechanical evidence for these discrepancies has been limited. Experimental investigations using human volunteers and post mortem human head-neck specimens have identified dynamic gender differences in overall head kinematics relative to T1  and segmental and localized spinal kinematics [4, 5] following simulated automotive rear impacts. However, it remains unclear whether dynamic gender differences resulted from anthropometry, or geometrical or structural differences in the head-neck complex and/or cervical spine. Structural gender differences identified in anterior cruciate ligaments of the knee  and histological differences identified in the ligamentum flavum of the lumbar spine may indicate possible structural or material gender differences in spinal ligaments . Therefore, the present investigation was conducted to experimentally identify soft tissue structural differences in spinal biomechanics.
Gender Specific Material Properties in the Thoracic Spine
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Stemper, BD, Board, D, Yoganandan, N, Pintar, FA, & Maiman, DJ. "Gender Specific Material Properties in the Thoracic Spine." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Keystone, Colorado, USA. June 20–24, 2007. pp. 627-628. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2007-175541
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