Musculoskeletal computational modeling can be a powerful and useful tool to study joint behavior, examine muscle and ligament function, measure joint contact pressures, simulate injury, and analyze the biomechanical results of reconstructive procedures. Commonly, biomechanical models are based on either finite element analysis (FEA) or three-dimensional rigid body dynamics. While each approach has advantages for specific applications, rigid body dynamics algorithms are highly efficient [1], thus significantly reducing solution time. Many musculoskeletal models of the elbow have been developed [2, 3], but all have constrained the articulations to have particular degrees of freedom and ignored the effects of ligaments. An accurate and robust model without these limitations has potential as a clinical tool to predict the outcome of injuries and/or surgical procedures. This work develops and validates an accurate computational model of the elbow joint whereby joint kinematics are dictated by three-dimensional bony geometry contact, ligamentous constraints, and muscle loading.

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