Finite element models of the spine provide a means to assess fracture susceptibility  or to evaluate devices . Such models require accurate estimates of the mechanical properties of the trabecular bone within the vertebral body. Properties can be estimated using density measures from quantitative computed tomography . Cellular solid analysis suggest the importance of incorporating microstructure in determining trabecular bone mechanics . But it is difficult to classify the structure of real trabecular bone morphology in terms of the idealized models. Instead, statistical measures of morphology, such as the fabric tensor are usually employed .
Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Vertebral Trabecular Bone Using Microstructural Finite Element Models
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Dai, Y, Ryan, J, & Niebur, GL. "Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Vertebral Trabecular Bone Using Microstructural Finite Element Models." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Keystone, Colorado, USA. June 20–24, 2007. pp. 869-870. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2007-175839
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