Approximately 250,000 patients diagnosed with valvular heart disease undergo valve repair/replacement surgery annually worldwide [1, 2]. Despite being over 50 years old, heart valve replacement technology, with the choice of mechanical or bioprosthetic, remains imperfect. The 10-year mortality rate after replacement is 30–55%, with reoperation rates of 2–4% per year because of mechanical failure, bleeding and thromboembolic complications, and calcification. It is therefore imperative that design and analysis tools be developed for the biosolid and biofluid mechanics of potential replacement valves.

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