In image-based CFD modelling of carotid bifurcation hemodynamics, it is often not possible (or at least not convenient) to impose measured velocity profiles at the common carotid artery (CCA) inlet. Instead, fully-developed velocity profiles are usually imposed based on measured flow rates. Previous work from our group showed that this is reasonable [1], in the sense that errors made in doing so are substantially less than uncertainties inherent in the model construction process itself. In that study, long helical inlet sections were imposed to induce asymmetric (Dean-type) velocity flows profiles consistent with in vivo velocity profiles measured by others at the CCA [2, 3].

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