The aortic valve (AV) is a complex structure that functions in a complex dynamic environment. During systole, the valve leaflets bend at the base to open and experience fluid shear stress on both ventricular and aortic sides of the leaflet. During diastole, adverse pressure gradient closes the valve causing it to structurally support the systemic afterload pressure. Ex vivo experiments has shown that isolated mechanical forces such as pressure, membrane tension, and fluid shear stress affects the remodeling activities of the valve leaflets and also elicit pathological responses [1], potentially leading to calcific aortic valve disease in the long term. Clinically, patients with hypertension have increased risk of developing calcific aortic valve disease [2], which could be a result of the increased pressure or the increased stretch on the valve leaflets.

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