High localized stresses can develop at the interface between dissimilar materials; their attachment is therefore a major engineering challenge. During the development of the tendon-to-bone attachment (the “enthesis”), tendon transitions into fibrocartilage and then into mineralized fibrocartilage as it inserts into bone [1,2]. While natural development leads to a strong and tough enthesis, surgical reattachment and healing of tendon to bone often fails [3]. Thus, a better understanding of the developmental cues necessary for enthesis formation may help to navigate future repair and tissue engineering approaches for tendon-to-bone repair.

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