Endothelial cells play an important role in the autoregulation of the vascular diameter for maintaining physiological flow and shear stress. An increase in blood flow causes an increase in shear stress, which is sensed by the endothelial cells, resulting in the release of vasoactive substances. An impaired endothelial mediated vasomotive response seems reflective for several cardiovascular pathologies, such as failure of atherosclerosis and arterio-venous fistulas (AVF).

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