We investigate the particle adhering and removal processes during CMP and post-CMP cleaning. The mechanical interaction between abrasive particles and wafer surface was studied using a microcontact wear model. This model considers the particle effects between the polishing interfaces during load balancing. Experimental results on polishing and cleaning are compared with numerical analysis. This study suggests that during post-CMP cleaning, a combined effort in chemical and mechanical interaction (tribochemical interactions) would be effective in removal small particles during cleaning. For large particles, more mechanical forces would be more effective.

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